a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group on the basis of generalizations derived from faulty or incomplete information.
3 parts of prej.
(1.) Cognitive component: a stereotype and set of beliefs about a group.
(2.) Emotional component: Dislike of or active hostility toward a group
(3.) Behavioral component: a predisposition to discriminate against a group whenever possible.
Prejudice can be
direct indirect or subtle
the holding of stereotypic views of women that suggest women are inferior to men.
*It also reflects an active dislike of women.
the holding of stereotypically positive views of women that are actually patronizing to them.
tend to idealize women romantically, may admire them as wonderful cooks, mothers and want to protect them when they do not need protection.
-When our cognitive resources are depleted-
ie. if we are tired, angry, stressed, distracted, or inebriated-prejudice can leak out.
assigning identical characteristics to any person in a group, regardless of the actual variation among members of that group.
5 causes of prejudice
Economic and Political Competition of Conflict- Given that resources are limited, the dominant group might attempt to exploit or derogate a minority group to gain
Displaced Aggression- taking out one's aggression on a lesser or less threatening target since it may be impossible to directly attack or target that cause of one's frustration. Scapegoating- the process of blaming a relatively powerless innocent person for something that is not his or her fault.
Maintenance of Status and Self-Image - If we can dehumanize a group than we can disconnect any of our immoral feelings from the situation and justify the harm, capture, or enslavement of other people. We can maintain a positive self-image while protecting our social status as a dominant group.
Dispositional Prejudice- Idea that there are individuals who merely hate. (Player Haters, Those individuals who have a less than SUNNY disposition
Conformity to Existing Norms-Idea of conforming to negative stereotypes and prejudices that are either taught, learned, or acquired from individuals, peers, and social institutions (school, family, church, etc..)
refers to an attribute that is deeply discrediting. [But it should be seen as a language of relationships, not attributes, is really needed.]
Virtual Soc. Identity
characterizations but they are not based upon anything but upfront reactions; they are NOT FACT
Actual soc. identity
the categories and attributes a person can be proved to possess
other names for stigma
3 types of stigma
Abominations of the body [physical deformities]
Blemishes of Individual Character [Ex: mental disorder, imprisonment, addiction, alcoholism, homosexuality, unemployment.
Tribal Stigma [stigma of race, nation, and religion that can be transmitted through lineages and equally contaminate all members of a family.
"normals" attitudes toward the stigmatized
*Normal person believe that a person with a stigma is not quite human.
*On this assumption, we begin to exercise the different varieties of discrimination, through which that stigmatized individuals life chances are severely reduced. [Criminals]
*We also begin to construct a stigma theory, an ideology to explain that individuals inferiority and account for the danger they represent,
*We also begin to use metaphors and imagery to describe stigmatized individuals [cripple, moron, idiot, etc.]
internalize failings and start to self blame,self hate, and self derogate themselves--> SHAME
normals & stigmatized interact
causes for the stigma to be confronted by both sides making it awkward
Responses to being stigmatized
1. direct attempt to correct (plastic surgery)
2. mastering areas of activity often felt to be closed to indiv. (ie. lame leg-swimming, tennis)
3.secondary gains- blame probs. on the stigman
4. blessing in disguise (life lesson or diff insight into world)
Responses to interacting w. normals
1.Avoid interaction (isolation)
2. the usual scheme from evryday events is undermined
3. minor failings or incidents may be interpreted as a direct expression if the person
4.privacy is being invaded-exposed
6.defensive cowering(too ashamed to interact
7.hostile bravado (in your face..what are U GONE DO)
Point goffman finds
stigmatized indiv. become more adept at managing uncomfortable situations
from ppl we find appealing to work w/, to those we want to hang otu w/, to friends and confidants, to the deep attachment of LOVE
why we like some more than others
have similar beliefs and interest
have skills, abilities & talents
have pleasant qualities such as loyalty,honesty
ppl who like us in return
General Reward of Attraction
like ppl whose behavior provides us w/ max reward at minimum cost.
Limitations and demisions of Praise
praise is liked but criticism at times can be liked when it regards improvement or rewards..difficult to know
sometimes neg. eval can increase admiration (college students)
ppl tend to like being praised and the praiser but must be manipulative and sincere
Limimtations and dimensions of favors
Ppl like ppl who do them favors but not ppl who do favors w/ strings attached.
favors w/ strings a threats to freedom
Ppl also do not like when a favor is done and the other person some how profits or indirectly gains a benefit from it.
2 very impportant personal attributes
competence & physical attractiveness
Limitations and demensions of compentency
-The more competent a person the more we tend to like them.
-Stand a better chance of being right if we are around highly competent people.
-Problem, we like being around competent people only if they do not make us look bad by comparison.
-Thus, a person must be competent but be fallible.
Limitations and aspect of physical attractiveness
Physical attractiveness also effects traits that we assign to others. The more attractive a person is the better and more desirable characteristics we assign to them
Perhaps even more important than just attractiveness is being of similar good looks.
attractive pp get blamed less, earn high salaries
attractive women are ok as long as they dont misuse beauty
influences feelings and behavior
Prat Fall Effect
a phenomenon in which some evidence of fallibility increases the attractiveness of a near perfect person.