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What are the average blood volumes for men and women?
What are the components of blood?
What are the hematocrit values for men and women?
- Men - 42-52%
- Women - 37-47%
What is the % composition of plasma?
- 90% water
- 6-8% proteins
- Electrolytes (high Na and Cl, low H, HCO3, K, Ca)
What is in plasma?
- Nutrients (glucose, AAs, lipids, vits)
- Wastes (urea, bilirubin, creatinine)
- Gases (dissolved O2, CO2)
What are the 3 classes of proteins and where are they synthesized?
Liver, except some globulins by lymphocytes
What are some functions of plasma proteins?
- Colloid osmotic pressure
- Buffer H
- Increase blood viscosity
- Fuel during starvation
What are the functions of albumins?
- Major contributor to plasma oncotic osmotic pressure
What are the functions of globulins?
- Alpha and Beta - carriers, clotting factors, enz's, precursor protiens
- Gamma (immunoglobulins) - immune system
What is the function of fibrinogen?
How many RBCs are in one mL of blood?
What is the diameter and thickness of RBCs?
- Diameter = 8um
- Thickness = 2 um
What is the main funciton of erythrocytes?
O2 and CO2 transport
What are erythrocytes made of?
- Enzymes (glycolytic and carbonic)
What is spectrin and what is it responsible for?
- Cytosolic fibrous protein
- Shape and flexibility of erythrocytes
What is a hemoglobin molecule made of?
Globulin + 4 heme groups
What is the synthesis of RBCs called?
What is the life span of RBCs? What is the rate of replacement?
What is the name of the stem cells that erythrocytes and leukocytes are developed from?
Hematopoietic stem cells
What are the requirements for erythrocyte production?
- Iron (hemoglobin)
- Folic acid (cell proliferation)
- Vitamin B12 (cell proliferation)
What is anemia?
Decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
What are the 2 types of anemia?
- Dietary - iron-deficiency anemia, pemicious anemia (vit B12)
What organs are involved in filtering and destruction of erythrocytes?
- Spleen filters/removes old
- Liver metabolizes byproducts from erythrocyte breakdown
How does the spleen filter old RBCs out of blood?
List the steps of hemoglobin catabolism
- Iron removed
- Heme -> bilirubin
- Bilirubin released into bloodstream
- Travels to liver where further metabolized
- Product secreted in bile to intestinal tract or secreted into bloodstream and excreted in urine
What is iron transported in blood bound to?
What is stored iron bound to?
What do glycolytic enzymes depend on?
What is carbonic anhydrase important for?
What is the function of leukocytes?
Defense of body
- Immune system
- Defend against pathogens
- Identify and destry cancer cells
- Phagocytosis of debris from dead or injured cells
What are the 2 classifications of leukocytes and what is the difference btwn the 2?
- Granulocytes - contain cytoplasmic granules
- Agranulocytes - no cytoplasmic granules
What are the different granulocytes? What do they stain?
- Neutrophils - red & blue
- Eosinophils - red
- Basophils - blue
What are the different agranulocytes?
What are the properties of neutrophils?
- 50-80% of leukocytes in blood
- Circulate in blood for 7-10 hrs
- Migrate to tissues for a few days
- #s increase during infections
What are the properties of eosinophils?
- 1-4% of leukocytes
- Defend against parasitic invaders
- Granules contain toxic molecules that attack parasites
What are the properties of basophils?
- <1% of leukocytes
- May defend against large parasites by releasing toxic substances
- Contribute to allergic reactions (histamine, heparin)
What are the properties of monocytes?
- 5% of leukocytes
- New ones circulate for few hours
- Migrate to tissues and become macrophages
- Wanderin and fixed macrophages
What are the properties of lymphocytes?
- 30% of luekocytes
- 99% of interstitial fluid cells
- 3 types - B, T, Null cells
What are the properties of B cells?
- Associated w/ antibodies
- Contacts antigen -> plasma cell
- Plasma cell secretes antibody
- Antibodies mark invaders for destruction
What are the properties of T cells?
- Directly damage foreign cells
- Contact infected. mutant, or transplanted cells
- Develop into cytotoxic T cells that destroy target cell
What are the properties of null cells?
- Most are natural killer cells
- Important against viral infections
- Attach virus-infected cells
- Fast acting
What are leukocytes derived from, where do they reach maturity, and what controls maturity?
- Hematopoietic stem cells
- Most develop into full maturity in bone marrow
- T lymphocytes migrate to thymus gland to develop to full maturity
- Controlled by colony-stimulating factors and interleukins