AN SC 310 - 18

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ebacker
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184261
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AN SC 310 - 18
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2012-11-18 19:45:43
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AN SC 310
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Lecture 18 - The Cardiovascular System: Blood
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  1. What are the average blood volumes for men and women?
    • Men - 5.5 L
    • Women - 5.0 L
  2. What are the components of blood?
    • Plasma
    • Erythrocytes
    • Leukocytes
    • Platelets
  3. What are the hematocrit values for men and women?
    • Men - 42-52%
    • Women - 37-47%
  4. What is the % composition of plasma?
    • 90% water
    • 6-8% proteins
    • Electrolytes (high Na and Cl, low H, HCO3, K, Ca)
  5. What is in plasma?
    • Nutrients (glucose, AAs, lipids, vits)
    • Wastes (urea, bilirubin, creatinine)
    • Gases (dissolved O2, CO2)
    • Hormones
  6. What are the 3 classes of proteins and where are they synthesized?
    • Albumins
    • Globulins
    • Fibrinogen

    Liver, except some globulins by lymphocytes
  7. What are some functions of plasma proteins?
    • Colloid osmotic pressure
    • Buffer H
    • Increase blood viscosity
    • Fuel during starvation
  8. What are the functions of albumins?
    • Major contributor to plasma oncotic osmotic pressure
    • Carriers
  9. What are the functions of globulins?
    • Alpha and Beta - carriers, clotting factors, enz's, precursor protiens
    • Gamma (immunoglobulins) - immune system
  10. What is the function of fibrinogen?
    Blood clotting
  11. How many RBCs are in one mL of blood?
    5 billion
  12. What is the diameter and thickness of RBCs?
    • Diameter = 8um
    • Thickness = 2 um
  13. What is the main funciton of erythrocytes?
    O2 and CO2 transport
  14. What are erythrocytes made of?
    • Spectrin
    • Hemoglobin
    • Enzymes (glycolytic and carbonic)
  15. What is spectrin and what is it responsible for?
    • Cytosolic fibrous protein
    • Shape and flexibility of erythrocytes
  16. What is a hemoglobin molecule made of?
    Globulin + 4 heme groups
  17. What is the synthesis of RBCs called?
    Erythropoiesis
  18. What is the life span of RBCs? What is the rate of replacement?
    • 120 days
    • 2-3 million/sec
  19. What is the name of the stem cells that erythrocytes and leukocytes are developed from?
    Hematopoietic stem cells
  20. What are the requirements for erythrocyte production?
    • Iron (hemoglobin)
    • Folic acid (cell proliferation)
    • Vitamin B12 (cell proliferation)
  21. What is anemia?
    Decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
  22. What are the 2 types of anemia?
    • Dietary - iron-deficiency anemia, pemicious anemia (vit B12)
    • Hemorrhagic
  23. What organs are involved in filtering and destruction of erythrocytes?
    • Spleen filters/removes old
    • Liver metabolizes byproducts from erythrocyte breakdown
  24. How does the spleen filter old RBCs out of blood?
    Phagocytosis
  25. List the steps of hemoglobin catabolism
    • Iron removed
    • Heme -> bilirubin
    • Bilirubin released into bloodstream
    • Travels to liver where further metabolized
    • Product secreted in bile to intestinal tract or secreted into bloodstream and excreted in urine
  26. What is iron transported in blood bound to?
    Transferrin
  27. What is stored iron bound to?
    Ferritin
  28. What do glycolytic enzymes depend on?
    anaerobic glycolysis
  29. What is carbonic anhydrase important for?
    CO2 transport
  30. What is the function of leukocytes?
    Defense of body

    • Immune system
    • Defend against pathogens
    • Identify and destry cancer cells
    • Phagocytosis of debris from dead or injured cells
  31. What are the 2 classifications of leukocytes and what is the difference btwn the 2?
    • Granulocytes - contain cytoplasmic granules
    • Agranulocytes - no cytoplasmic granules
  32. What are the different granulocytes? What do they stain?
    • Neutrophils - red & blue
    • Eosinophils - red
    • Basophils - blue
  33. What are the different agranulocytes?
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  34. What are the properties of neutrophils?
    • 50-80% of leukocytes in blood
    • Phagocyte
    • Circulate in blood for 7-10 hrs
    • Migrate to tissues for a few days
    • #s increase during infections
  35. What are the properties of eosinophils?
    • 1-4% of leukocytes
    • Phagocytes
    • Defend against parasitic invaders
    • Granules contain toxic molecules that attack parasites
  36. What are the properties of basophils?
    • <1% of leukocytes
    • Non-phagocytic
    • May defend against large parasites by releasing toxic substances
    • Contribute to allergic reactions (histamine, heparin)
  37. What are the properties of monocytes?
    • 5% of leukocytes
    • Phagocytes
    • New ones circulate for few hours
    • Migrate to tissues and become macrophages
    • Wanderin and fixed macrophages
  38. What are the properties of lymphocytes?
    • 30% of luekocytes
    • 99% of interstitial fluid cells
    • 3 types - B, T, Null cells
  39. What are the properties of B cells?
    • Associated w/ antibodies
    • Contacts antigen -> plasma cell
    • Plasma cell secretes antibody
    • Antibodies mark invaders for destruction
  40. What are the properties of T cells?
    • Directly damage foreign cells
    • Contact infected. mutant, or transplanted cells
    • Develop into cytotoxic T cells that destroy target cell
  41. What are the properties of null cells?
    • Most are natural killer cells
    • Important against viral infections
    • Attach virus-infected cells
    • Fast acting
  42. What are leukocytes derived from, where do they reach maturity, and what controls maturity?
    • Hematopoietic stem cells
    • Most develop into full maturity in bone marrow
    • T lymphocytes migrate to thymus gland to develop to full maturity
    • Controlled by colony-stimulating factors and interleukins

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