AN SC 310 - 19

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  1. What is external respiration?
    • pulmonary ventilation
    • exchange btwn lungs and blood
    • transportation in blood
    • exchange btwn blood and body tissues
  2. What are the upper airways?
    • Nasal cavity
    • Oral cavity
    • Pharynx
  3. What are the components of the respiratory tract?
    • Larynx
    • Conducting zone
    • Respiratory zone
  4. What are the structures of the conducting zone?
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Secondary bronchi (R has 3, L has 2)
    • Tertiary bronchi (20-23 orders of branching)
    • Bronchioles (less than 1mm diameter)
    • Terminal bronchioles
  5. What are the functions of the conducting zone?
    • Air passageway (150 mL volume = dead space volume)
    • Increase air temp to body temp
    • Humidify air
  6. What is the epithelium of the conducting zone comprised of?
    • Goblet cells - secrete mucus
    • Ciliated cells - move particles toward mouth
    • Musuc escalator
  7. What are the structures of the respiratory zone?
    • Respiratory bronchioles
    • Alveolar ducts
    • Alveoli
    • Alveolar sacs
  8. What are the functions of the respiratory zone?
    • Exchange of gases btwn air and blood
    • Mechanism is by diffusion
  9. What is the epithelium of the respiratory zone comprised of?
    Respiratory membrane - epithelial cells of alveoli, endothelial cells of capillary
  10. What are some properties of alveoli?
    • Site of gas exchange
    • 300 million alveoli/lung
    • Rich blood supply
    • Alveolar pores
  11. What are 3 types of alveolar cells?
    • Type I alveolar cells - make up wall of alveoli
    • Type II alveolar cells - secrete surfactant
    • Alveolar macrophages
  12. What is the job of the respiratory membrane?
    Barrier for diffusion - type I cells + basement membrane, capillary endothelial cells + basement membrane
  13. What are the structures of the thoracic cavity?
    • Chest wall - rib cage, sternum, thoracic vertebrae, muscles
    • Pluera - membrane lining of lungs and chest wall
  14. What is the volume of the interplueral space?
    15 mL
  15. What is the role of pressure in the pulmonary ventilation?
    • Air moves from high to low pressure
    • Inspiration - pressure in lungs less than atmosphere
    • Expiration - pressure in lungs greater than atmosphere
  16. How does intra-alveolar pressure vary?
    Inspiration = negative (less than atmospheric)

    Expiration = positive (more than atmospheric)
  17. How does intrapleural pressure compare to atmospheric?
    • Always negative under normal conditions
    • Always less than Patm
    • Varies w/ phase of respiration (at rest = -4 mm Hg)
  18. What the negative pressure in pleural sacs caused by?
    • Elasticity in lungs and chest wall
    • Opposition of lungs and chest wall pulls on intrapleural space
    • Surface tension of intrapleural fluid holds wall and lungs together
  19. What is transpulmonary pressure?
    • Palv - Pip
    • Distending pressure across the lung wall
  20. What is the equation for air flow?
    Image Upload
  21. What creates/changes pressure gradients in lungs?
    Alveolar pressure
  22. What is boyle's law?
    Pressure is inversely related to volume
  23. What factors determine intra-alveolar pressure?
    • Quantity of air in alveoli
    • Volume of alveoli
  24. What muscles are involved in inspiration?
    • Diaphragm
    • External intercostals
  25. What muscles are involved in expiratory muscles?
    • Generally, expiraiton is passive (unless exercising)
    • Internal intercostals
    • Abdominal muscles
Card Set:
AN SC 310 - 19
2012-11-19 03:24:20
AN SC 310

Lecture 19 - The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation
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