Nutrition Digestion and Absorption

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Nutrition Digestion and Absorption
2012-11-18 20:31:07

Ch 45
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  1. Organic nutrients fall into 5 categories
    • carbohydrates
    • proteins
    • lipids
    • nubleic acids
    • vitamins
  2. Inorganic nutrients
    • water
    • minerals like calcium, copper, and iron
    • (serve as cofactors)
  3. Four types of biological micromolecules
    • carbohydrates-glucose
    • proteins-amino acid
    • lipids-fatty acid
    • nucleic acids-nuceotides
  4. Carbohydrates funtion
    • energy source
    • componenet of some proteins
    • source of carbon
  5. proteins funtion
    • provide amino acids to make new proteins
    • build muscle
    • some for energy source
  6. Lipids funtion
    • major component of┬ácell membranes
    • enerty source
    • thermal insulator
    • building blocks of some hormones
  7. Nubleic acids funtion
    provide sugars, bases, and phosphates that can be used to make DNA, RNA, and ATP
  8. Four groups of essential nutrients
    • essential amino acids
    • essential fatty acids
    • vitamins
    • minerals
  9. essential nutrients
    we can not make. They must come from food.

    nonessential nutrients: we can make
  10. Ways of obtaining food
    suspension feeding

    bulk feeding

    fluid feeding
  11. suspension fedders
    sift water, filtering out the organic matter and expelling the rest.

    barnacles, shark, whale shark, coral
  12. bulk feeders
    those who eat food in large pieces




    generally predators (in aquatic)
  13. accessory organs
    • tongue
    • teeth
    • salivary glands
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
  14. peristalsis
    rhythmic, spontaneous waves of muscle contraction that begin near the mouth and end at the stomach.
  15. transepithelial transport
    the transport of substances from the lumen to the blood
  16. Bile
    made by liver. secreted by gall bladder.

    It is an e mulsifier (it's made up of amphipathic moledules that, in effect, allow fatty acids to be somewhat 'dissolved" in water)