11.1 A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis

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11.1 A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis
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  1. The __created a vast empire whose rule brought stability to the __, which, in turn, brought prosperity, as well as fleas that spread __. Signs of disintegration were everywhere: famine, economic depression, war, social upheaval, a rise in crime and violence, and a decline in Church power
    Mongols

    • Eurasian trade routes
    • Black Death
  2. I.                   Famine and Population
    a.      End of thirteenth century
    •   End of thirteenth century: change in weather patternà little ice ageà shortened growing seasons and bad weather conditions, scuh as storms and constant rain
    •                                                               i.      1315-1317: heavy rains destroyed harvests, causing food shortages and hunger and starvation
    • 1.      Extended from n. Europe to other parts
    • a.      Famile killed 10% of population in first half of 14th c. 
  3. I.                   Famine and Population
    Large Population in High Middle Ages

    •                                                               i.      All land farmed
    •                                                             ii.      Also movement from rural to urban areas (18%)
    • 1.      Did not improve conditions (17000/140,000 paupers)\
    •                                                           iii.      Individual acreage so small, it couldn’t support the population
    •                                                           iv.      This led to malnutritionà increased infant mortality and lower birthrates
  4. I.                   Black Death: From Asia to Europe
    Means of Transmittance
    and Origination
    • a.      Bubonic plague spread by black rats infested with infested fleas
    • b.      Originaiton:
    •                                                               i.      Although disappeared from Europe and Middle East in the Middle Ages, Mongol troops brought the rats that infected China
    • 1.      90% of province in Beijing died; overall, china’s population: 120 million to 80 million by 1400
  5. I.                   Black Death: From Asia to Europe
    a.      Mongols
    •                                                               i.      Brought Eurasian landmass under single rule in 13th c.--> long-distance trade
    • 1.      Movement of people and goods helped spread plague
    • b.      1330: Central Asiaà1339: Smarkandà Caffa (1346)àConstantinople and Europe (1347)à 1348: Egypt, Mecca, Damascus, Germany and FranceàEngland (1349) and by end, Scandinavia and northern Europeà Russia and e. Europe (1351)
  6. I.                   The Black Death in Europe
    • a.      Ravaged Euorpe’s population and caused economic, social, political, and cultural upheaval
    •                                                               i.      High fever, aching joints, swollen lymph nodes, dark blotches from bleeding
    • b.      Brought from merchants and spread to Italy, France, and Spain by end of 1347
    •                                                               i.      Followed commercial trade routes
    • c.       Mortality figures high, esp. in Italy due to ports where plague brought in
    •                                                               i.      Large cities suffered 50-60% loss
    • d.      France (farming villages suffered mortality of 30% and 40% in other areas); England and Germany lost entire villages: Germany 130,000/170,000 remained
  7. III. The Black Death in Europe
    European Population
    • a.      European population declined by 25-50% between 1347-1351
    •                                                               i.      Outbreaks again in 1361-62, 1369 and repeatedly for five or six to ten and twenty years, depending on climate and ecology
    •                                                             ii.      Recovered around 1500
  8. Reactions to the Plague
    •                                                               i.      Some lived for the moment through sexual and alcoholic orgies
    •                                                             ii.      Wealthy and powerful fled
    •                                                           iii.      Some thought God was punishing them for their sins or caused by devil
    •                                                           iv.      Some resorted to extreme asceticism to cleanse their sins and gain forgiveness
  9. Flagellants
    • 1.      Flagellants flogged themselves too win God’s forgiveness
    • a.      Attracted attention and caused mass hysteria
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Some killed Jews and attacked clergy, scaring the Church
    • b.      Some also developed millenarian aspect, anticipating the end and return of Jesus
    • c.       Pope Clement VI condemned them in October 1349 and urged tehm to be crushed, ending their movement in 1350
  10. Anti-Seminsim
    • 1.      Jews accused of causing plague andpersucuted
    • a.      Germany organized massacres, pogroms, against them, destroying more than 60 major Jewish communities by 1351
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Jews fled to Russia and Poland under king’s protection
  11. Effects of Plague
    •                                                               i.      Some survivors treated life as cheap, increasing violence and nviolent deaths
    •                                                             ii.      Morbid preoccupations and reiminders of death
    •                                                           iii.      Tombstones decorated with macabre scenes of naked corpses decomposing and entwined with snakes and worms
  12. IV. Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval
    a. Population
    • a.      Population collapse+ economic dislocationà social upheaval
    •                                                               i.      1000-1300: clergy (pray), nobility (fight), and laborers (work)à disintegrated in fourteenth century where urban and rural revolts occurred in Europe
  13. I.                   Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval
    a.      Noble Landlords and Peasants
    •                                                               i.      Labor shortange that caused rise in price of labor
    •                                                             ii.      Decline in population held stable the demand for agricultural produce, resulting in stable or falling prices for output
    • 1.      Due to landlords paying more for labor while their rents or incomes were declining, their standards of living were being more difficult and lowly
    • a.      England: their income dropped 20%
    • b.      Responded by trying to lower wage rate
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      English Parilament passed Statute of Laborers (1351):
  14. Statute of Laborers
    • 1.      tried to limit wages to preplague levels
    • 2.      forbid mobility of peasants
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Law did not work, but did keep wages from rising as high as free market
  15. I.                   Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval
    Overall
    Decline in Peasants
    •                                                               i.      Overall:
    • 1.      Landlords’ living deterioratedà peasant conditions improved
    •                                                             ii.      Decline in peasants after plague led to converstion of labor services to rents
    • 1.      Freed peasants from obligations of servile tenure and weakened Manorialism
    • a.      Still had limits of advancement         
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Faced same economic hurdles as lords, but lords tried to impose wage restrictions, reinstate old forms of labor service, and create new obligations
    •                                                           iii.      New governmental taxes also hurt
    •                                                           iv.      Peasants complained and revolted
  16. Revolt in France

    Factors
                                                                  i.      In 1358, one called Jacquerie, in northern France

    •  1.      Destruction of normal order by Black Death
    • 2.      Subsequent economic dislocation
    • 3.      Ravages created by the Hundred Years’ War also affected French peasants
    • 4.      French and English policy of laying waste to peasants’ fields while bands of mercenaries lived off te land by taking their produce
    • 5.      Growing class tensions
    • a.      Landed nobles wanted to maintain politically privileged position and felt threatened after plague
    • b.      Peasants and nobles both held contempt
  17. Revolt in France Effects
    •                                                               i.      Effects
    • 1.      Peasants burned castles nad murdered nobles
    • 2.      Privileged classes massacred the rebels and ended the revolt
  18. Revolt in England
    •                                                               i.      English Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 was most prominent
    • 1.      Product of rising expectations
    •                                                             ii.      After Black Death, the condition of the English peasants had improved as they enjoyed greater freedom and higher wages or lower rents
    • 1.      Aristocratic landlords fought back with legislation to depress wages and attempted to reimpose old feudal dues
  19. Revolt in England Immediate Cause
    •                                                               i.      Immediate Cause: monarchy’s attempt to raise revenues by imposing a poll tax or a flat charge on each adult member of the population
    • 1.      Peasants refused to pay the tax and expelled the collectors forcibly from their villages
  20. Effects of Revolt in England
    •                                                               i.      Effect:
    • 1.      Rebellion of peasants and townspeople led by peasant Wat Tyler and a preacher named John Ball, who preached against the noble class
  21. Success of Revolt in England
    • 1.      Initially as rebels burned down manor houses of aristocrats, lawyers, and government officials and murdered several important officials
    • a.      After peasants marched on London, King Richard II (15) promised to accept the rebels’ demands if they returned home
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      The accepted and the king broke the promise, arresting hundreds of htem with aristocratic help
    • 1.      Poll tax was eliminated
  22. Revolts in the Cities
    •                                                               i.      Commercial and industrial activity affected by Black Death
    • 1.      Oversupply of goods and immediate drop in demandà trade decline and industrial suffering
    •                                                             ii.      Bourgeois merchants and manufacturers attempted to restrict competition and resist demands of lower classes
  23. Revolts in the Cities: Urban Areas
    •                                                               i.      Urban areas, where capitalist industrialists paid low wages and managed to prevent workers from forming organizations to help themselves, experienced industrial revolts
    • 1.      Most famous was ciompi in Florence in 1378
    • a.      They were wool workers in Florence’s industry who saw wages decline when coinage debased
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Their revolt won them some concessions from the municipal government, including the right to form guilds and be represented in the government
    • 1.      Short-lived rights; aurhorities ended ciompi participation in government by 1382
  24. Revolts in the Cities 
    Reaction to Uprisings
    •                                                               i.      Uprisings were quickly crushed and gains lost
    • 1.      Established classes formed united front to end dissent
    •                                                             ii.      Effect: revolts led to social conflict

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