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Plants are autotrophic-where do they get their food source from?
What determines cell fate in plants?
Shoot Apical Meristem
Seed leaves--protective material comes out of soil first
Stem above cotyledons
Stem portion between cotyledon and root
Junction between main stem and leaf
Regions of cell division?
Apical Meristem is:
the growing tip of shoot and root
4 parts of SAM:
- Tunica-outer layer-L1 and L2
- Corpus-inner layer-L3
- Central zone-slow cell division-renews meristem
- Peripheral zone-rapid cell division-cells form organs
- L2-Bulk of leaf and flower-albino layer, does not make chlorophyll'
- L3-Inner layer of leaf
position of leaf on stem
2 types of phyllotaxy
- Spiral phyllotaxy
- Whorl phyllotaxy
Spiral phyllotaxy degree
Whorl phyllotaxy degree
Changes to phyllotaxy
Plants can change from whorl to spiral from chemical changes or external manipulation (cut the meristems)
Hormone that inhibits lateral outgrowth of plants
Where is auxin secreted and what does it allow?
Secreted from the apical meristem and allows for cell elongation and growth response to light/gravity. Plants grow to a point because there is more auxin at the bottom of the plant.
Found in leaf axils and produce axillary buds
apical dominance--suppress axillary meristems get Christmas tree appearance
If SAM is removed
get bushy appearance
Other kinds of meristems
Adventitious-forms from surface cells on stems and leaves; bushy appearance even w/o SAM
Cylinder type-Cambrium layer (which allows for lateral growth) causes increase in width of plants/bark production
grows into soil
5 parts of root meristem
- Root cap-for protection
- Zone of cell division-meristematic region just below the root cap
- Zone of cell elongation-where cells elogate
- Zone of cell differentiation-where cells differentiate into Xylem and Phloem as well as where lateral roots and root hairs form
- Quiescent center of root meristem-contains slowly dividing cells
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