End of CH21, beginning of CH22

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Shontae
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184372
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End of CH21, beginning of CH22
Updated:
2012-11-19 03:50:28
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CH21 22
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  1. Why does CORONARY CIRCULATION have HIGH BP???!!
    to ensure continuous blood flow to meet demands of active cardiac muscle tissue
  2. What is the FUNCTION of CORONARY CIRCULATION?
    • supplies blood to muscle tissue of heart
    • THE HEART!!!
  3. What happens in MAXIMUM EXERTION?
    • Oxygen demand rises
    • blood flow to <3 rises
  4. Where do the CORONARY ARTERIES originate?!
    @ base of ascending aorta
  5. ATRIAL BRANCHES supply the WHAT?!
    OHHHH! the R and L atria!!!
  6. The VENTRICULAR BRANCHES take blood where?
    interventricular septum
  7. What are ANASTOMOSES?
    interconnections between arteries
  8. Where does the GREAT CARDIAC VEIN deliver blood?
    the coronary sinus
  9. What is SYSTOLE?
    • contraction
    • chamber ejects blood either to another chamber or an arterial trunk
  10. What is DIASTOLE?
    • relaxation
    • chamber fills with blood and prepares for next cycle
  11. What is the effect of NE RELEASE?
    • increases HR and force of contractions
    • with betareceptors
  12. What is the effect of ACh RELEASE?
    • decreses HRand force of contractions
    • with muscarinic receptors
  13. What are the LAYERS of BLOOD VESSELS?
    • intima
    • media
    • adventitia
  14. Describe the INTIMA.
    • innermost
    • endothelial lining
  15. Describe the INTERNAL ELASTIC MEMBRANE.
    • layer of elastic fibers
    • in arteries!!
    • on outside of intima
  16. Describe the MEDIA.
    has concentric sheets of smooth muscle
  17. How is the MEDIA bound to the INTIMA?
    by collagen fibers
  18. What is the FUNCTION of the CONCENTRIC SMOOTH MUSCLES in the MEDIA?
    • constrict to reduce diameter of vessels (which is sympathetic)
    • relax to increase diameter of vessels (which is parasympathetic)
  19. What is affected by changes in VESSEL DIAMETER??
    BP andblood flow through tissue
  20. Describe the EXTERNAL ELASTIC MEMBRANE.
    band of elastic fibers between media and adventitia
  21. Describe the ADVENTITIA.
    • outer connective tissue sheath around vessel
    • very thick
    • mostly collagen, some elastic
  22. Describe ELASTIC ARTERIES.
    • large arteries
    • transport a lot of blood
    • ex) pulmonary trunk and aorta
  23. Describe MUSCULAR ARTERIES.
    • transport blood to skeletal muscles and internal organs
    • medium sized
    • ex) external carotid, brachial, and femoral arteries
  24. Describe ARTERIOLES.
    • small
    • control blood flow between arteries and capillaries
    • incomplete layers
  25. Describe CAPILLARIES.
    • smallestttt
    • quick exchange
    • slow blood flow
    • endothelial tube with basal lamina
  26. Why do CAPILLARIES have SLOW BLOOD FLOW?
    to allow diffusion of material across capillary walls
  27. What is unique about CAPILLARIES?
    only blood vessel with walls that permit exchange between blood and surrounding interstitial fluid
  28. Describe CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES.
    • complete endothelium
    • connected by tight junctions and desmosomes
  29. Describe FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES.
    • has pores from incomplete endothelial lining
    • permits rapid exchange of fluids
    • ex) chorois plexus
  30. Describe SINUSOIDS.
    • larger pores that fenestrated
    • thinner basal lamina
    • flattened and irregular
    • found in) liver and bone marrow
  31. What is the FUNCTION of a SINUSOID?
    permit extensive exchange of fluids and large solutes
  32. Why does blood move SLOWLY through SINUSOIDS?
    to maximize time available for absorption and secretion across walls
  33. What is a CAPILLARY BED?
    interconnected unit of capillaries
  34. Where do VEINS get blood from?
    all tissues and organs and return it to the heart
  35. Why is BP in VEINS lower?
    • thinner walls
    • less elastic
  36. Describe VENULES.
    • smallest veins
    • collect blood from capillaries
    • media layer may not exist
  37. Describe MEDIUM SIZED VEINS.
    • thin media
    • thick adventitia
  38. What is an example of LARGE VEINS?
    inferior and superior venae cavae
  39. The BLOOD RESERVOIR =
    • the venous system
    • liver main part
  40. VENOUS RESERVE=
    change in volume
  41. What is VASOCONSTRICTION?
    when smooth muscles of walls contract and reduce volume of venus system
  42. Where does the PULMONARY CIRCUIT start and finish?
    pulmonary trunk to the entrance of the L atrium
  43. What happens in the PULMONARY CIRCUIT?
    • oxygen replenished
    • carbon dioxide excreted
    • oxygenated blood returns to <3 to go to systemic circuit
  44. What are ALVEOLI?
    • small air pockets
    • walls thin enough for gas exchange between capillary blood and inspired air
  45. Describe the PULMONARY VEINS.
    cary oxygenated blood to L atrium
  46. Where does the SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT start and finish?
    aortic valve to R atrium
  47. What happens in the SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT?
    capillary beds in all parts of bot not supplied by pulmonary circuit are supplied

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