Card Set Information
T/F? There are more deaths, illnesses and disabilities from substance abuse than from any other preventable health condition?
Addiction is characterized by the 5 C's, name them.
impaired control over drug use
continued use despite harm
How does abuse and dependence of BZDs affect the body?
usually do not lead to life-threatening respiratory suppression
switching between agents won't help alleviate the problem
long term use can cause withdrawal if stopped abruptly
Presentation of BZD intoxication
Lab tests for BZDs
tox screen. can be positive up to 6 weeks with chronic use
How to treat a BZD overdose?
do not induce emesis!!!!
gastric lavage if patient presents within 1 hour
administer activated charcoal
supportive measures for hypotension and bradycardia
Flumazenil rarely used anymore due to black box warning of seizures
Presentation of BZD withdrawal
parasthesias, strange sensations
Use of Buspirone in BZD withdrawal
can be used in place of BZD if anxiety develops during or following taper
Signs of GHB toxicities
Is there an antidote for GHB toxicity?
good supportive care and patients should recover in about 7 hours
How do you know if GHB is present?
patients presenting with unexplained or sudden coma with no evidence of head trauma or elevated ICP
GHB does have an unpleasant salty taste
Presentation of opiate intoxication and withdrawal
: ranges from a few hours after stopping heroin to 3-5 days
methadone ranges from 3-14 days
development of delirium is a red flag!!!
Lab tests to detect opiates
: codeine, heroin, hydromorphone, morphine
How to treat opiate overdose?
Naloxone 2 mg iv (can be put into a drip with D5W
What should you monitor in cocaine intoxication?
EKG (continuously monitor)
What are drugs you need to avoid in cocaine overdose?
use bzds, aspirin, and nitroglycerin
Lab tests for amphentamine intoxication
urine screen for diagnostic purposes
positive for 24-48 hours from ingestion
How to treat amphetamine intoxication?
induction of emesis is contraindicated (seizures)
monitor electrolytes, renal function, CPK, and EKG
treat agitaion with valium
threat hypertension with nitroprusside or a beta blocker
cooling blakets for hyperthermia
How to treat NMDA (ecstasy)?
monitor electrolytes, BUN, creatinine, LFTs, CBC, coagulation, CPK
do not induce emesis
IV line and hydrate
bzds for agitation, seizures
beta blockers for hypertension and tachycardia
cool patient with evaporated cooling
Treatment for PCP?
positive for 1 to 8 days
valium or haldol for agitaiton
diphenhydramine for dystonic reactions
beta blocker or nitroprusside for hypertension
cooling and hydration for hyperthermia
Signs and Symptoms of ketamine
derivative of PCP
effects last about an 1 hr but can take 1-2 days to feel normal again
presents "floating over ones body"
colorless, odorless and tasteless
Treatment for Ketamine intoxication
no antidote exists
spportive care focusing on cardiac and respiratory function
Signs and symptoms of LSD intoxication
colors are heard, sounds are seen
not considered addictive
Presentation of marijuana intoxication
tchycardia and congestion
THC can be positive for 4-5 weeks (up to 11 weeks with heavy use)
What blood alcohol levels are death commonly seen?
greater than 400-500 mg/dL
a positive respone to 2 or more questions suggests an increased likelihood of alcohol abuse
Treatment of alcohol withdrawal
are the standard to minimize symptoms and avoid progression to more severe stages
thiamine (prevents wernicke-korsikoff syndrome)
multivitamin (can be added to fluids)
: beta blockers, clonidine
Drugs to use for management of alcohol dependence