CH24 exam5

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Shontae
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184381
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CH24 exam5
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2012-11-19 06:02:28
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CH24
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exam 5
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  1. What does the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM facilitate?
    exchange of gases between air and blood
  2. Where does BLOOD take OXYGEN?
    to peripheral tissues
  3. Where does BLOOD get CARBON DIOXIDE from?
    peripheral tissues
  4. GAS EXCHANGE is best over what kind of surfaces?
    wet surfaces
  5. The RESPIRATORY SYSTEM includes the following:
    • nose
    • nasal cavity and sinuses
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • conducting passageways
  6. The RESPIRATORY TRACT includes:
    • a conduction portion
    •  a respiratory function
  7. Describe the CONDUCTION PORTION of the respiratory tract.
    • 90%
    • airways for transport in and out of lungs
  8. Describe the RESPIRATORY PORTION of the respiratory tract.
    • @ end
    • respiratory bronchioles
    • alveoli
    • where respiration actually occurs (gas exchange)
  9. What are the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM?
    • provide area for gas exchange
    • move air to and from exchange surface
    • moisten air
    • receptors for smell
    • defend from pathogens
    • produce sound
    • assist in regulation of blood volume, BP, and pH
  10. What are the functions of the NOSE?
    • inhale/ exhale
    • moisten air
    • warm air
    • filter air
    • trap particles with mucus
  11. What is the NASAL CAVITY lined with?
    pseudosrtaified ciliated columnar epithelium
  12. What lines the NASOPHARYNX?
    PSCC
  13. What lines the OROPHARYNX? WHY?
    • stratified squamous
    • for protection from food
  14. What lines the LARYNGOPHARYNX? WHY?
    • stratified squamous
    • for protection from food
  15. What is the GLOTTIS?
    • a cavity enclosed by cartilage
    • component of the larynx
  16. What is the EPIGLOTTIS?
    • leaf shaped, elastic cartilage
    • prevents food from entering lungs
    • part of larynx
  17. Describe the LARYNX.
    • linned by PSCC
    • with hyaline cartilage plates
  18. What are TRUE VOCAL CORDS?
    ligaments between hyaline cartilage plates of the larynx
  19. What are FALSE VOCAL CORDS?
    • cover the true cords
    • no sound
  20. Describe the TRACHEA.
    • PSCC
    • C shaped
    • hyaline cartilage
    • trachealis muscle
  21. What is the location and function of the TRACHEALIS MUSCLE?
    • across back of trachea
    • where there is no hyaline cartilage
    • to push food down
  22. Where do the BRONCHI branch off at?
    T5
  23. Describe the 2 PRIMARY BRONCHI.
    • PSCC
    • left is longer (for <3)
    • right is wider
    • wnter at hilus of lung
  24. What is a HILUS?
    indentation for entry point for vessels and tubes
  25. Describe the 5 SECONDARY BRONCHI.
    • left primary has 2
    • right has 3
    • PSCC
    • small cartilage plates (not rings)
  26. Describe the many TERTIARY BRONCHI.
    • PSCC
    • cartilage plates
  27. List the structures of the LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
    • Larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchi
    • bronchioles
  28. Describe the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES.
    • small
    • no cartilage
    • ciliated simple columnar
    • smooth muscles
  29. What is the function of the SMOOTH MUSCLE of the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES?
    bronchconstriction/ dilation (ANS)
  30. Describe the RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES.
    • thinner
    • simple cuboidal
    • no mucus
    • where respiratory zonen starts
  31. Describe the TRACHEA.
    • aka "windpipe"
    • walls have cartilage rings
    • bifurcates at carina
  32. How does the TRACHEA enter the thoracic cavity?
    anterior to esophagus
  33. What is the CARINA?
    where the trachea splits into the primary bronchi
  34. Why is it easier for foreign objects to get stuck in the R PRIMARY BRONCHI?
    descends toeard lung at steeper angle
  35. What is the function of the LAMINA PROPRIA?
    • LCT
    • for blood supply to epithelium
  36. Describe the R LOBES of the LUNGES.
    • 3
    • superior
    • middle
    • inferior
  37. Describe the L LOBES of the LUNGS.
    • 2
    • superior
    • inferior
  38. Where do BRONCHIOLES lead to? What happens there?
    • alveoli
    • respiration
  39. What is the RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE?
    • the alveoli
    • simple squamous
    • basal lamina
    • endothelium
  40. What are SURFACANT SECRETING CELLS?
    • phospholipids
    • rare
    • type 2 cells of alveoli
  41. What is the function of SURFACANT SECRETING CELLS?
    reduce surface tension so alveoli don't collapse
  42. When do SURFACANT SECREING CELLS begin to function?
    • @ 6th month of fetal development
    • fully function tat 8 months
  43. Describe INSPIRATORY MUSCLES during RESTING INHALATION.
    • diaphragm pushes down to create vaccum.
    • exernal intercostals pull rib cage up and out
  44. Describe EXPIRATORY MUSCLES during RESTING EXHALATION.
    • not needed
    • elastic recoil of lungs and thoracic cavity
    • diaphragm up
    • intercostals relax
  45. Describe what ahppens during FORCEFUL INSPIRATION.
    • everything out
    • diaphragm down
  46. What are the ACCESSORY MUSCLES of FORCEFUL INSPIRATION?
    • sternocleidomastoid
    • serratus anterior
    • pectoralis minor
    • scalene muscles
  47. Describe what happens during FORCEFUL EXPIRATION.
    • everything in
    • diaphragm up
    • internal intercostals pull rib cage in
  48. What are the ACCESSORY RESPIRATORY MUSCLES of FORCEFUL EXPIRATION?
    • transversus thoracis
    • oblique
    • rectus abdominis
  49. Where is VOLUNTARY CONTROL of breathing at?
    cerebrum
  50. How is the MEDULLA a RESPIRATORY CENTER?
    • rhythmicity center (relaxed pace)
    • basic pace, subconcious
  51. How are the PONS a RESPIRATION CENTER?
    modifies breathing patterns based on emotion and exercise
  52. Describe what happens to the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as we age.
    • lung elasticity decreases
    • rib cage movement restricted
    • emphysema

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