S&S: bruised, swollen, tender abdomen; blood in vomit; rectal or vaginal bleeding
Treatment of Internal Bleeding
Apply cold pack: < swelling & slows bleeding
For Serious Internal Bleeding:
Reassure & keep the victim still
Look for/ care for symptoms of shock
Loosen tight clothing
Nose Bleed: Epistaxis (Treatment)
Pinch soft part of nose below the end of the bone between thumb and forefinger
Lean head slightly forward; breath through mouth. Alternative: leave head in neutral position
Assess blood flow; if minor, icepack at bridge of nose
If fast bleeding continues, call 911
Signs and Symptoms of Infection
Swelling / Swollen glands
Red streaks à Septicemia
A form of acute failure of blood circulation
A life threatening condition with a variety of possible causes: most commonly the reaction of the body to the failure of the cardiovascular system to provide an adequate supply of blood to all vital parts of the body.
Caused by loss of blood or other body fluids, like serious bleeding or dehydration.
Patient does not survive
Caused by the failure of the nervous system to control the diameter of the blood vessels. ( often seen with brain and spinal cord injuries. No actual blood loss)
May be caused by myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiac dysfunction
Blood pressure will be lower than normal
A life threatening reaction of the body to a substance to which the patient is extremely allergic.
Epinephrine: 0.01 cc/kg in the tum.
Susphrine: Half of that, in the fat: 0.005 cc/kg
Caused by severe infections.
Toxins are released into the blood stream which cause the blood vessels to dilate.
First Aid: Shock
Back, elevate legs if no neck or head injury
If head or neck injury: lie flat on back while waiting for EMS. Do not move.
If vomiting- roll to side
If dyspnea- semi- recline
Maintain Body temperature
Dilated: Both pupils: Shock, bleeding, exhaustion, drugs (cocaine, amphetamines)
Constricted: both; Heat stroke, drugs(narcotics)
Unequal: Head injury, stroke
Partial Airway Obstruction
Hands to throat
Tx of Partial Obstruction
If pt stops coughing & cannot speak, treat for total airway obstruction.
Complete Airway Obstruction
Unable to speak, cough, breathe
Loss of consciousness
Tx of Complete Airway Obstruction
For the conscious patient
Heimlich maneuver until object is dispelled or consciousness lost
Behind, leg between pt’s legs;
thumb side of fist above
pt’s navel &
well below sternum.
Quick upward thrust
Loss of Consciousness from Airway Obstruction
Position the choking person on his or her back; if you suspect a spinal injury, be extremely careful not to move or twist the head, neck or spine. If several rescuers are present, use their assistance to minimize this danger .
Unconsciousness (step 2 & 3)
Kneel down, straddling the choking person's legs and facing the choking person's abdomen.
Place the heel of one
Hand just above
Unconsciousness (step 4-6)
Place the other hand over the first hand, interlacing the fingers of the two hands.
Straighten your arms.
Thrust inward and upward, using a quick motion. Give up to five thrusts in rapid succession.
Unconsciousness (step 8-9)
Tilt the head and give two slow breaths. If the breaths won't go in, re-tilt the head and give two more breaths.
Repeat the cycle of thrusts, mouth sweep, head tilt, breaths, head re-tilt and breaths until breaths go in, or until the person begins breathing on his or her own.
Excessive sputum production
S & S Depend on location in airway.
Major Drugs Commonly Employed In Dentistry
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