1103 Hypertension Drug Cards

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MarieRN
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1103 Hypertension Drug Cards
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2012-11-19 21:16:10
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Hypertension Drug Cards
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  1. isosorbide mononitrate nitroglycerin
    (ISMO)

    PO/Sublingual

    Antianginal

    Action: Stimulates intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate.

    Therapeutic Effect: Relaxes vascular smooth muscle of arterial, venous vasculature. Decreases preload, afterload.
  2. nitroglycerin
    (Nitrostat, Nitro-Time)

    Transdermal/IV/PO/Sublingual/Topical

    Antianginal, antihypertensive, coronary vasodilator

    • Action: Dilates coronary arteries, improves collateral
    • blood flow to ischemic areas within myocardium. IV form produces peripheral vasodilation.

    Therapeutic Effect: Decreases myocardial oxygen demand. Reduces left ventricular preload, afterload.
  3. lidocaine
    (Xylocaine)

    IV/IM/Topical/Dermal Patch

    Antiarrhythmic, anesthetic

    • Anesthetic Action: Inhibits conduction of nerve impulses.
    • Therapeutic Effect: causes temporary loss of feeling/sensation.
    • Antiarrhythmic: Decreases depolarization, automaticity, excitability of ventricle during diastole by direct action.
    • Therapeutic Effect: Inhibits ventricular arrhythmias.
  4. propranolol
    (Inderal)

    IV/PO

    Antihypertensive, antianginal, antiarrhythmic, antimigraine

    • Action: Blocks beta1-, beta 2-adrenergic receptors.
    • Decreases oxygen requirements. Slows AV conduction, increases refractory period in AV node. Large doses increase airway resistance.

    Therapeutic Effect: Slows heart rate; decreases cardiac output, B/P, myocardial ischemia severity. Exhibits antiarrhythmic activity.
  5. verapamil
    (Calan, Calan SR)

    IV/PO

    • Antihypertensive, antianginal, antiarrhythmic,
    • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy therapy adunct

    • Action: Inhibits calcium ion entry across cardiac,
    • vascular smooth-muscle cell membranes, dilating coronary arteries, peripheral
    • arteries, arterioles.

    • Therapeutic
    • Effect: Decreases heart rate, myocardial contractility; slows SA, AV
    • conduction. Decreases total peripheral vascular resistance by vasodilation.
  6. lovastatin
    (Mevacor)

    Antihyperlipidemic

    PO

    • Action: Inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that
    • catalyzes the early step in cholesterol synthesis.

    Therapeutic Effect: Decreases LDL, VLDL, triglycerides; increases HDL
  7. simvastatin
    (Zocor)

    PO

    Antihyperlipidemic

    • Action: Interferes with cholesterol biosynthesis by
    • inhibiting conversion of the enzyme HMG-CoA to mevalonate.

    Therapeutic Effect: Decreases LDL, cholesterol, VLDL, triglyceride levels; slight increase in HDL concentration.
  8. digoxin
    (Lanoxin)

    IV/PO

    Antiarrhythmic, cardiotonic

    Action: Increases influx of calcium from extracellular to intracellular cytoplasm.

    Therapeutic Effect: Potentiates activity of contractile cardiac muscle fibers, increases force of myocardial contraction. Slows the heart rate by decreasing conduction through SA, AV nodes.
  9. terazosin
    (Hytrin)

    PO

    Antihypertensive, benign prostatic hyperplasia agent

    • Action: Blocks alpha-adrenergic receptors. Produces
    • vasodilation, decreases peripheral resistance, targets receptors around bladder neck, prostate.

    Therapeutic Effect: In hypertension, decreases B/P. In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), relaxes smooth muscle, improves urine flow.
  10. atenolol
    (Tenormin)

    PO

    Antihypertensive, antianginal, antiarrhythmic

    • Action: Blocks beta1-adrenergic receptors in cardiac
    • tissue.

    Therapeutic Effect: Slows sinus node heart rate, decreasing cardiac output, B/P. Decreases myocardial oxygen demand.
  11. metoprolol
    (Lopressor Tropol XL)

    IV/PO

    Antianginal, antihypertensive, MI adjunct

    • Action: Selectively blocks beta1-adrenergic
    • receptors. Decreases oxygen requirements. Large doses increase airway resistance.

    Therapeutic Effect: Slows heart rate, decreases cardiac output, reduces B/P. Decreases myocardial ischemia severity.
  12. labetalol
    (Normodyne)

    IV/PO

    Antihypertensive

    Action: Blocks alpha1-, beta1-, beta2-, (large doses) adrenergic receptor sites. Large doses increase airway resistance.

    Therapeutic Effect: Slows sinus heart rate; decreases peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac output, B/P.
  13. hydralazine
    (Apresoline)

    IV/PO

    Antihypertensive

    Action: Direct vasodilation effects on arterioles.

    Therapeutic Effect: Decreases B/P, systemic vascular resistance.
  14. benazepril
    (Lotensin)

    PO

    Antihypertensive

    • Action: Decreases rate of conversion of angiotensin1
    • to angiotensin 2, a potent vasoconstrictor. Reduces peripheral arterial resistance.

    Therapeutic Effect: Lowers B/P
  15. enalapril
    (Vasotec)

    IV/PO

    Antihypertensive, vasodilator

    • Action: Suppresses renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
    • system. Decreases plasma angiotensin 2, increases plasma renin activity, decreases aldosterone secretion.

    Therapeutic Effect: In hypertension, reduces peripheral arterial resistance. In CHF, increases cardiac output; decreases peripheral vascular resistance, B/P, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, heart size.
  16. quinapril
    (Accupril)

    PO

    Antihypertensive

    Action: Suppresses renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, preventing conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2, a potent vasoconstrictor; may inhibit angiotensin 2 at local vascular renal sites.

    Therapeutic Effect: Reduces peripheral arterial resistance, B/P, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; improves cardiac output.
  17. iosartan
    (Cozaar)

    PO

    Antihypertensive

    • Action: Potent vasodilator. Blocks vasoconstrictor,
    • aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin 2, inhibiting binding of angiotensin 2 to AT1 receptors.

    Therapeutic Effect: Causes vasodilation, decreases peripheral resistance, decreases B/P
  18. valsartan
    (Diovan)

    PO

    Antihypertensive

    • Action: Potent vasodilator. Blocks vasoconstrictor,
    • aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin 2, inhibiting binding of angiotensin 2 to AT1 receptors.

    • Therapeutic Effect: Produces vasodilation, decreases
    • peripheral resistance, decreases B/P.
  19. amlodipine
    (Norvasc)

    PO

    Antihypertensive, antianginal

    • Action: Inhibits calcium movement across cardiac and
    • vascular smooth muscle cell membranes.

    Therapeutic Effect: Dilates coronary arteries, peripheral arteries/arterioles. Decreases total peripheral vascular resistance and B/P by vasodilation.
  20. nifedipine
    (Procardia)

    PO

    Antianginal, antihypertensive

    • Action: Inhibits calcium ion movement across cell
    • membranes, depressing contraction of cardiac, vascular smooth muscle.

    Therapeutic Effect: Increases heart rate, cardiac output. Decreases systemic vascular resistance, B/P.
  21. oxybutynin chloride
    (Ditropan)

    PO/Gel/Transdermal/Topical Gel

    Anticholinergic

    Action: Exerts antispasmodic (papaverine-like), antimuscarinic (atropine-like) actions on detrusor smooth muscle of bladder.

    Therapeutic Effect: Increases bladder capacity, delays desire to void.
  22. tolterodine
    (Detrol)

    PO

    Antispasmodic

    • Action: Exhibits potent antimucarinic activity by
    • interceding via cholinergic muscarinic receptors, thereby inhibiting urinary bladder contraction.

    Therapeutic Effect: Decreases urinary frequency, urgency.
  23. tamsulosin
    (Flomax)

    PO

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia agent

    Action: Targets receptors around bladder neck, prostate capsule.

    Therapeutic Effect: Relaxes smooth muscle, improves urinary flow, symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia.
  24. phenazopyridine
    (Pyridium)

    PO

    Urinary Tract Analgesic

    Action: Exerts topical analgesic effect on urinary tract mucosa.

    Therapeutic Effect: Relieves urinary pain, burning, urgency frequency.
  25. hydrochlorothiazide
    (HydroDIURIL)

    PO

    Thiazide diuretic, antihypertensive

    • Action: Diuretic: Blocks reabsorption of water sodium, potassium at cortical diluting segment of distal tubule.
    • Antihypertensive: Reduces plasma, extracellular fluid volume, peripheral vascular resistance by direct effect on blood vessels.

    Therapeutic Effect: Promotes diuresis, reduces B/P.
  26. metolazone
    (Zaroxolyn)

    PO

    Diuretic, antihypertensive

    • Action:
    • Diuretic: Blocks reabsorption of sodium, potassium, chloride at distal convoluted tubule, promoting delivery of sodium to potassium side, increasing sodium-potassium (Na-K) exchange.
    • Therapeutic Effect: Produces renal excretion.
    • Antihypertensive: Reduces plasma and extracellular fluid volume, peripheral vascular resistance. Therapeutic Effect: Reduces B/P.
  27. bumetanide
    (Bumex)

    IV/PO

    Diuretic

    • Action: Enhances excretion of sodium, chloride, and,
    • to lesser degree, potassium, by direct action at ascending limb of loop of Henle and in proximal tubule.

    Therapeutic Effect: Produces diuresis
  28. furosemide
    (Lasix)

    IV/IM/PO

    Diuretic

    • Action: Enhances excretion of sodium, chloride,
    • potassium, by direct action at ascending limb of loop of Henle.

    Therapeutic Effect: Produces diuresis, lowers B/P
  29. torsemide
    (Demadex)

    IV/PO

    Antihypertensive, antiedema

    • Action: Enhances excretion of sodium, chloride,
    • potassium, water at ascending limb of loop of Henle. Reduces plasma, extracellular fluid volume.

    Therapeutic Effect: Produces diuresis; lowers B/P.
  30. spironolactone
    (Aldactone)

    PO

    Potassium-sparing diuretic, antihypertensive,

     antihypokalemic

    • Action: interferes with sodium reabsorption by competitively inhibiting action of aldosterone in distal
    • tubule, promoting sodium and water excretion, increasing potassium retention.

    Therapeutic Effect: Produces diuresis. Lowers B/P.

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