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List the parts of the urinary system, and give the function of each:
- Pair of kidneys (maintains homeostasis of the blood)
- Pair of ureters (to transport urine away from the kidneys)
- Urinary bladder (sack-like, to store urine)
- Urethra (tubular, to convey urine to the outside of the body)
State the primary organs of the urinary system and list 3 functions:
- Excretion of metabolic wastes such as water, urea & uric acid
- Disposal of excess water and salts
- Regulation of pH of blood and body fluids
Where does the kidneys lie anatomically?
- They lie of either side of the vertebral body at about level of T12-L3.
- Left kidney is slightly higher than the Right
- Positioned retreperitoneally (behind the parietal peritoneum & against deep muscles of the back)
- Held in place by connective tissue (renal fascil) and adipose tissue
Where does the filtration of the blood for the production of urine occurs?
Where does reabsorption of useful substance in the filtrate occurrs?
- Renal tubules
- Collecting ducts
- secretion of unneeded substances
How is urine volume regulated?
- by regulating the amount of water that is excreted in the urine
- Secretion of water by the kidneys is regulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
What is the flow of urine from the glomerulus to the outside of the body?
- Bowman's Capsule
- Proximal convoluted tubule
- Loop of Henle
- Distal convoluted tubule
- Collecting duct
- Minor calycx
- Major calycx
- Renal Pelvis
Describe the inner most layer of ther bladder:
mucous coat (includes serveral thicknesses of epithelial cells called transitional epithelium)
Describe the anatomic location of the bladder:
- located in the pelvic cavity, behind the pubic symphysis
- In males (lies against the rectum posteriorly)
- In females (contacts the anterior walls of the uterus and vagina)
State the frequency of adult kidney tumors and state which age they most often occur?
male to female ratio - 2:1
55-60 years old
What are the possible etiologic agents for kidney tumors?
Where does most kidney tumors arise?
What is the most common type of kidney tumor?
What is the percentage of tumors arising in the renal pelvis? name the most common type of tumor found here.
What is "classic triad" of kidney cancer and what stage are they associated?
List the most common presenting symptom of kidney cancers:
Name diagnostic procedures used to detect kidney cancers?
What are the patterns of spread for kidney tumors?
What is the treatment choice of renal cell cancers?
What is the role of XRT in the treatment of kidney cancers?
What is the max dose that can be given to both kidneys without causing acute radiation nephritis?
Name the incidence & etiology of bladder cancer:
- Dye, rubber, textile, leather, pain working
- Chronic bladder infections
- Previous pelvic irratiadation
- Pesticide exposure
- Contaminated water supply
What is the most common histologic type of bladder cancer?
Transitional cell (92%) which is epithelial
What is the single most important factor in staging bladder cancer and determing treatment and prognosis?
Staging is based on depth of invasion through the bladder wall
State the most common presenting symptom of bladder cancer?
Define cystectomy and fulguration:
- Cystectomy - surgical procedure to remove bladder
- Fulguration - destruction of living tissue
What is the role of XRT in the treatment of bladder cancer?
Can be used initially and save surgery for salvage