GEO 102 Exam 3

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  1. Bioterrorism
    deliberate use of microorganisms or toxins from living organisms to induce death or disease
  2. Confederation
    group of states united for a common purpose
  3. Citizenship
    a category of belonging to a nation-state that includes civil, political, and social rights.
  4. Childrens Rights
    the fundamental right of children to life, liberty, education, and healthcare codiefied in 1989 by the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child
  5. Decolonization
    the acquisition by colonized peoples of control over their own territory
  6. Democratic Rule
    a system in which public policies and officials are directly chosen by popular vote
  7. Discourse
    institutionalized ways of constituting knowledge
  8. Domino Theory
    theory that if one country in a region chooses or is forced to accept a communist political and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistibly susceptible to communism
  9. East/West Divide
    communist and noncommunist countries, respectively
  10. Federal State
    form of government in which power is allocated to units of local government within the country.
  11. Geopolitics
    states power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relationships
  12. Global Civil Society
    set of institutions, organizations, and behaviors situated between the state, business world, and family, including voluntary and non profit organizations, philanthropic institutions, and social and political movements
  13. Gerrymandering
    practice of redistricting for partisan purposes
  14. Human Rights
    peoples individual rights to justic freedom equality considerered by most societies to belong automaticlly to all people.
  15. International Organization
    group that includes two or more states seeking political and/or economic cooperation with each other.
  16. International Regime
    orientation of contemporary politics around the international arena instead of the national
  17. New World Order
    triumph of capitalism over communism, wherein the USA becomes the worlds only superpower and therefore its policing force
  18. Nationalism
    feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
  19. Nation
    group of people often sharing common elements of culture such as religion or language or a history or political identity
  20. North/South Divide
    differentiation made between the colonizing states of the Northern Hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the Southern Hemisphere
  21. Nation-State
    ideal form consisting of homo group of people governed by their own state
  22. Orientalism
    discourse that positions the West as culturally superior to the East
  23. Regionalism
    feeling of collective identity based on a populations politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
  24. Redistricting
    defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries
  25. Reapportionment
    process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas
  26. Sectionalism
    extreme devotion to local interests and customs
  27. Self Determination
    right of a group with a distinctive politico territorial identity to determine its own destiny, at least in part, through the control of its own territory
  28. Soveriegnity
    excersise of state pwoer over people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law.
  29. State
    an independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
  30. Supranational Organizations
    collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature
  31. Terrorism
    threat or use of force to bring about political change
  32. Territory
    delimited area over which a state exercises control and which is recognized by other states
  33. Territorial Organizations
    syste of govt formally structured by area, not by social groups
  34. Unitary State
    form of govt in which power is concentrated in the central govt
  35. Central Place Theory
    a theory that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities as a function of peoples shopping behavior
  36. Central Place
    a settlement in which certain products and services are available to consumers
  37. Centrality
    the functional dominance of cities within an urban system
  38. Counterurbanization
    the net loss of population from cities to smaller towns and rural areas
  39. Colonial City
    a city that was deliberately established or developed as an administrative or commerical center by colonial or imperial powers
  40. Gateway City
    serves as a link between one country or region and others becaused of its physical situation
  41. Informal Sector
    economic activities that take place beyond official record, not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration
  42. Megacity
    very large city characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its national economy
  43. Overurbanization
    condition in which cities grow more rapidly than the jobs and housing they can sustain
  44. Primacy
    condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relation to the second and third largest cities
  45. Reurbanization
    growth of population in metropolitan central cores following a period of absolute or relative decline in population
  46. Rank Size Rule
    statistical regularity in size distributions of cities and regions
  47. Squatter Settlements
    residential developments that occur on land that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
  48. Shock City
    city that is seen as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and cultural life
  49. Urbanism
    way of life attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior fostered by urban settings
  50. Urban Form
    physical structure and organization of cities
  51. Urban Ecology
    social and demographic composition of city districts and neighborhoods
  52. Beaux Arts
    a style of urban design that sought to combine the best elements of all of the classic architectural styles
  53. Cycle of Poverty
    the transmission of poverty and deprivation from one generation to another through a combination of domestic circumstances and local, neighborhood conditions.
  54. Congregation
    the territorial and residential clustering of specific groups or subgroups of people
  55. Colonies
    Colonies may result from relatively weak and short lasting congregation, discrimination, or both.
  56. Central Cities
    the original, core jurisdictions of metro areas
  57. Central Business District
    the central nucleus of commercial land uses in a city
  58. Dualism
    the juxtaposition in geographic space of the formal and informal sectors of the economy
  59. Enclaves
    In enclaves, tendencies toward congregation and discrimination are long standing but dominated by internal cohesion and identity
  60. Edge Cities
    nodal concentrations of shopping and office space situated on the outer fringes of metro areas typically near major highway intersections
  61. Fiscal Squeeze
    an area of a city inhabited by a minority group somtimes by choice but more often as a result of social, legal, or economic discrimination
  62. Gentrification
    invasion of older centrally located working class neighborhoods by higher income households seeking the character and convienience of less expensive and well located residences
  63. Invasion and Succession
    process of neighborhood change whereby one social or ethnic group succeeds another
  64. Isotropic Surface
    hypothetical, uniform plain that is flat and has no variations in its physical variations in its physical attributes
  65. Minority Groups
    population subgroups that are seen or that see themselves as somehow different from the general population
  66. Metroburbia
    suburban and exurban areas where residential settings are thoroughly interspersed with office e,ploylement and high end retailing
  67. Modern Movement
    architectural movement based on the idea that buildings and cities should be designed and run like machines
  68. Multiple Nucleii Model
    model of urbanization proposed by Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman in which decentralized nodes of different categories of land use end up in many differnt configurations depending on local conditions
  69. Redlining
    practice whereby lending institutions delimit bad risk neighborhoods on a city map and then use the map as the basis for determining loans.
  70. Segregation
    spatial seperation of specific population subgroups within a wider population
  71. Trade Off Model
    a modified urban land use model that describes how poorer households, unable to afford the recurrent costs transportations, trade off living space for accessibility to jobs and end up in high density areas, at expensive locations, near their low wage jobs.
  72. Underemployment
    situation in which people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours
  73. Zone in Transition
    area of mixed commerical and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
  74. Complete Key Concepts for Chapter 9-10-11
  75. Geopolitical Model of the State
    Aristotle is often considered the 1st political geographer because of his model of the state is based on climate,terrain, and the relationship between population and territory.

    Other important political geographers have incorporated elements of the landscape and the physical environment,as well as population characteristics of regions.

    Later on, people theorized that the state operated cyclically and organically. 20th c. theorists such as Foucault, Althusser, and Deleuze have shifted focus away from viewing the state as a set of institutions; they are more concerned with how state power is assembled and deployed.
  76. Difference Between Deleuze and Althusser
    State is a set of institutions for the protection and maintenance of society. It is an active entity that operates through the rules and regulations of its various institutions.

    Louis Althusser - views the state as both ideological and repressive

    Michael Foucault - explored the ways the power, knowledge, and discourse operate to produce particular kinds of state subjects.

    Giles Deleuze - sees the state as a force that is greater than the formal institutions that constitute it. Believers that the state is best thought of as a machine whose purpose is to regulate and dominate.
  77. Why are imperialism,colonialism, heartland theory, domino theory, and end of the cold war and emergence of the new world order key examples of ways geography influcned politics and vice versa?
    Geopolitics may involved the extension of power by one group over another. There are many different manifestations of this phenomenon. Imperialism and colonialism involve occupation and control by one state over another. Heartland theory reconigzes that a central location is pivotal to political and geographic control whereas domino theory reflects the significance of proximity in the extension of power and control. During the cold war blocks of the global political system, capitalist vs communist, were in direct and indirect conflict.The current new world order is a manifestation of the decline of those old conflicts and the emergence of the new ones.
  78. How has the growth and proliferation of international and supranational organizations created the foundation for the emergence of global forms of govt?
    International and Suprnational organization are increasingly a part of the world system and important to free flow of goods, information, and more cooperative management of shared resources such as water.
  79. How are events of international political significance usually the result of East/West and North/South divisions whereas national and local political issues rise from sectionalism and regionalism?
    Capitalist colonialism and imperialism were key factors in producing global state divisions around capitalism versus communision (East/West) and rich vs poor (North/South).

    Local differences have emerged over enthinicty, political orientations and economic committments - they are expressed through regionalism and sectionalism.
  80. Difference between the politics of geography and geography of politics as a two way relationship?
    Political Geography can be viewed through two contrasting lenses.

    Politics of Geography - emphasizes geograpy -  the areal distribution/ differientation of people objects in space ... has a real measurable impact on politics.

    Geography of Politics - anaylizes how politics - the tactics or operations of the state shapes geography.
  81. How did the earliest towns and cities develop indenpendently in the various hearth areas of the 1st agricultural revolution?
    The very first region of independent urbanism, in the Middle East, produced successive generations of urbanized world empires, including those of Greece, Rome, and Byzantium.

    • By 2500 BCE cities appeared in Indus Valley
    • By 1800 BCE areas established in northern China
    • 100 BCE - MesoAmerica
    • 800 CE - Andean America

    Classic reason is that the availability of surplus food allowed the emergence of specialized nonagricultural workers. Some urbanization happened due to population growth.
  82. Relationship of Trade - Colonialism - Imperialism and the establishment of numerous gateway cities.
    European powers founded and developed thousands of towns as they extended their trading networks and established colonies. Majority of towns were Ports that served as control centers commanding entrance to and exit fom their particular country and region.

    They were protected by fortifications and european naval powers - these places began as trading posts then as colonial administrative centers.

    Then they developed manufacturing of their own to supply the pioners needs, along with more extensive commerical and financial services. Ports grew rapidly into gateways for colonial expansion into conitental interiors.
  83. Why and how did the Industrial Revolution generated new kinds of cities?
    Industrial economies required the large pools of labor; transportation networks; infrastructure of factories; warehouses; and consumer markets provided by cities.

    As industrialization spread across Europe, urbanization rapidly occured at a faster pace. Higher wages and jobs attracted migrants from other places. Countryside emptied into urban centers. Death rates dropped. Increased labor supply boosted urbanization.
  84. How have a small number of "world cities" in core regions come to occupy key roles in the organization of global econommics and culture?
    World cities are the control centers for the flow of information, cultural products, and finance that collectively sustain the economic and cultural globalization of the world. Key roles of the world cities are concerned with transnational corporate organization, international banking and finance, supranational govt, and the work of international agencies. World cities also provide an interface between the global and the local. They contain the economic, cultural, and institutional apparatus that channels national and provincial resources into the global economy and transmits the impulses of globalization back to national and provincial centers.
  85. Differences in trends and projections between the world core regions and peripheral regions.
    In 1950, 2/3 of the world urban population was concentrated in the more developed countries of the core economies. Since then, the world urban population has increased threefold, the bulk of growth having taken place in the less developed counties of the periphery.

    The worlds core regions are highly urbanized, with slow rates of urban growth. Peripheral regions, although less highly urbanized, have been experiencing exceptionally high rates of urban growth, partly due to rural-urban migration and partly due to natural population increase.

    Much of the resulting urbanization has taken the form of "megacities" of 10 million people or more. Overurbanization has occured where cities have grown more rapidly than they have been able to generate jobs or housing.
  86. Heartland Theory
  87. Africa's Newest Country is ...
    South Sudan
  88. A state is considered sovereign when ...
    other states recognize it as legitimate
  89. What is a Nation-State?
    group of culturally or ethnically similar people who control their own territory
  90. What is the major difference between monarchial power and a republic?
    A republic requires the support of its governed populace.
  91. What was an outcome of the dissolution of the Soviet Union?
    • the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States
      • This was Russia's attempt to maintain relations with its former republics while still respecting their independence.
  92. Why is Spain NOT considered to be a nation-state?
    Spain contains more than one ethnic group. A nation-state is a homogeneous group of people governed by its own state. Because Spain contains more than one ethnic group, it cannot be a nation-state.
  93. Which describes an organization composed of a collection of countries?
    supranational. Organizations such as the United Nations are known as supranational organizations.
  94. What is the name of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union (those south and east of Russia)?
    the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
  95. What is the process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas called?
    reapportionment. Reapportionment differs from redistricting in that it does not involve the adjustment of boundaries for potential political gain.
  96. De jure regions are those whose boundaries ________.
    are formal and legally recognized. De jure regions have formal boundaries. Remember that de jure means "legally recognized."
  97. Which is an international and/or supranational organization?
    Although the EU and ASEAN involve a smaller group of states than does the UN or WTO, all are examples of international and/or supranational organizations.
  98. Which of the following countries has largely been immune from the "Arab Spring," in that calls for governmental reform and/or change has been largely silent?
    Saudi Arabia
  99. Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the "new world order?"
    A new era of localism will begin. The only assumption that does not connect to the idea of the "new world order" is that a new era of localism will begin
  100. Which two countries were the first to extend the European urban system into the world's peripheral regions?
    Portugal and Spain. Portugal and Spain first created an urban system in Latin America in the early 1500s.
  101. According to geographers, what is a central place?
    A central place is a settlement in which particular goods and services are available to consumers.
  102. Which of the following is an example of a megacity?
    Among these cities, only Mumbai has a population large enough to be considered a megacity.
  103. Gateway cities ________.
    Gateway cities serve as a link between one country and another.
  104. What are squatter settlements
    Squatter settlements are places in which people reside without owning the land or paying rent.
  105. Which statement best describes a shock city?
    a city that epitomizes the radical social, economic, and cultural changes of its times. Chicago and Manchester are excellent examples of shock cities of the 1800s.
  106. Urban ecology refers to _______
    the social and demographic composition of urban .neighborhoods and districts. Although the term ecology typically refers to matters of the environment, in the urban context it refers to the composition of the population
  107. Counterurbanization is a phenomenon in which _______.
    cities lose population because residents move to rural areas. Counterurbanization occurs when cities lose population because residents move to rural areas.
  108. Cities now account for what proportion of the world's population?
    • approximately one-half
    • A higher proportion of the world's populace now lives in cities.
  109. If a country's urban system conforms to the rank-size rule, then its second-largest city should be ____ the size of the country's largest city.

    The rank-size rule describes a statistical regularity in the city-size distribution of countries. The relationship is such that the nth largest city in a country is 1/n the size of the largest city in that country. Thus, the second-largest city should have a population half the size of a country's largest city.
  110. Towns in early medieval Europe (476–1000 c.e.) developed for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
    as centers of trade. Trade was not an organizing basis of towns in early medieval Europe.
  111. The notion that large populations within cities provide an environment that encourages new ideas and competition is most associated with ________.
    This is the generative function of cities. The large and diverse populations of cities are often claimed to inspire innovation and generate new ideas.
  112. According to the text, which world region has the largest percentage of urban population?
    North America. According to Table 10.1, North America has the largest percentage of urban population, with over 81% of its population living in cities.
  113. The development of towns in medieval Germany around the specialty of armor production is an example of urbanization due to ________.
    The development of merchant capitalism ushered in a new era of urbanization based on trade and regional specialization.
  114. The term used to describe cities with cultural, political, and economic importance disproportionate to their population size is ________.
    The textbook refers to this condition of disproportionate importance as primacy
  115. Chicago and Manchester, England, were two "shock cities" of the 1800s. They were similar in all of the following ways EXCEPT which one?
    • Both relied heavily on colonialism to fuel their growth.
  116. When a colonial city was "planted," all of the following were laid out EXCEPT ________.
    canals for improved transportation. Canals were not always part of a "planted" colonial city.
  117. Urban form refers to ________.
    Urban form refers to the land use and layout of a city.
  118. What is a Supranational Organization?
    Collection of states with a commonal goal such as the European Union
  119. Name 1 State that was not independent in 1989?
  120. What is a Frontier Region?
    Undeveloped - Unsettled - Zero/Limited Government

    Antartica and some Third World Countries
  121. What is a Nation-State?
    A nation-state is a country or territory that has a single ethnic group (Homogeneous). 
  122. What happened when the USSR was dissolved?
    The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed.
  123. Who created the Heartland Theory?
    Halfur Mackinder
  124. What is the Domino Theory
    the Domino Theory says that if one place fell to communist rule, the adjacent countries would be pressured and eventually fall into communist rule.
  125. What country is not in the European Union?
  126. What is Gerrymandering?
    illegal allocation of electoral votes to increase the likihood of election and voter representation
  127. What is De' Jure?
    is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact". The terms de jure and de facto are used instead of "in law" and "in practice", respectively, when one is describing political or legal situations.
  128. Who came up with the concept of discourse and what is it?
    Michel Foucault

    process in achieving acceptance of an idea or theory
  129. What instigated and inspired the 2011 Arab Springs uprising?
    The Persian Awakening - protest by young iranians of elections that inspired others
  130. What is Orientalism?
    developed by Edward Said - believed superior to native population and believed that conquering and colonizing them would be to their benefit because they offered them better futures.
  131. What country was last to gain independence?
  132. What is Primacy?
    population is crazy more like  than the 2nd largest population. 
  133. What is a Gateway City?
    Airport or seaport that serves as the entry point to a country by being the primary arrival and departure point.
  134. Who was ecclesiates and a university center?
    Cambridge and Canterbury
  135. What country was the highest population in urban areas as a percentage of the total population?
  136. What is a World City?
    largest disapportion of World business in such places like New York and London ... Europe was the largest amount of World Cities.
  137. Where is the growth of population in urban areas as a percentage of the population the largest?
  138. What country is predicted to have the most population by 2025?
  139. What is Reurbanization?
    Growth of the Inner City after a Period of Decline in the Inner City ... such as the repopulation of rust belt cities like Buffalo
  140. What was the largest city in 1000 C.E.?
  141. Examples of Shock Cities?
    Chicago and Manchester ... they are places where dramatic change occurs such as the Industrialization in these places.
  142. What are Shezen and Zhuhai?
    Economic Zones for Hong Kong
  143. What is the Cycle of Poverty?
    the cycle that occurs do to the impacts and circumstances of povery that basically encourages the transmission of poverty.
  144. What are some characteristics of a European city?
    Low Skylines - Dense Buildings - Socialism Cities - Lively Downtowns
  145. What is the Modern Movement?
    focuses more on the function of things rather than than the form. Function determines form.
  146. What are some characteristics of a Polycentric Metropolis?
    Center Business District - Edge Cities - New Business Centers
  147. What is the meaning of Congregation?
    Territorial clustering - placemaking activity to preserve ethnic identity
  148. What is Highest Bid Rent?
    It is the value given to a location of the sequence of the value worth as you travel away from the location for certain land uses. ALWAYS A POSITIVE TREND TOWARD THE CITY.

    • High Volume Retail = Closest to the City is Highest Value
    • Residents = Land Use is not as valuable to People as Retail.
  149. What is the Fiscal Squeeze?
    the municipal financial crisis that occurs with declining property taxes to support government services.
  150. What is a Slum of Despair and an example?
    A slum of despair is one where the conditions are very dangerous and that the chance for survival and for escape into a higher social rank is very difficult.

    Dharvi Slum in Mumbai
  151. What is the most polluted cities?
    China - it has 16 of the 20 worst polluting cities in the World
Card Set:
GEO 102 Exam 3
2012-12-07 03:53:14

Human Geography - Univ at Buffalo
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