microbiology unit 3 Non-Specific Host Defense
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Dead, dry, kertinized, temporary surface.
The epidermis is the layer at which sweat comes from. What is in the sweat?
Salt and lysozyme
Epidermis pH? (high or low?)
Dermis also contains ________. This layer of skin is associated with what type of tissue? Which is located where?
salt. Lymphatic Tissue. Just beneath the dermis
Epithelial Tissue lines what 3 tracts?
- 1. Respiratory Tract
- 2. Digestive Tract
- 3. Urogenital Tract
What is the job of mucus in terms of the microbes and host cell? What may the mucus contain?
It keeps the microbes from binding to host cell surfaces. May contain antimicrobial chemicals.
What is the name of the mucus membrane found in the respiratory tract? What is its job?
Mucociliary blanket. Inhaled microbes get trapped and transported to stomach.
What's the pH in the digestive tract? (high or low?)
Neutrophils (aka ________) How do neutrophils work? Which means they are ph________.
(PMN) They migrate to damaged/infected areas in blood. Phagocytic.
Eosinophils are anti-________. How is their inflammatory response?
Anti-parasitic. Limited Immune Response
Basophils are apart of what kinda of response?
T-cells are responsible for.....
cell mediated immunity.
B-cells are responsible for....
Mast cells are apart of what type of response? Which have what type of distribution?
Inflammatory response. Widely distributed
Macrophages are ph______. What are involved in what type of immunity?
phagocytic. Involved in specific immunity and other responses.
Dendritic cells are involved in what type of immunity?
MHC class 1 proteins are produced by....
most of the cells in the body
What does NK cells does if they loose the MHC 1 protein?
They destroy the cell.
3 locations for lymphatic tissue
- 1. Spleen
- 2. Tonsils
- 3. Appendix
The spleen what..... (in terms of passing fluids)
blood rather than lymph passing through.
What are the 2 major types of phagocytes?
- 1. neutrophils (pmns)
- 2. Macrophages
How are opsonins formed?
Built by body's cells.
What are the 2 types of opsonins?
- 1. Antibodies
- 2. Activated Compement proteins
PAMPs are molecules....
only found in some microorganisms.
Binding of PAMPs results in _________. Which causes........ (in terms of cytokines)
Phagocytosis. Production and expression of cytokines that can affect other defense mechanisms.
What does histamine cause? (Relsease of chemicals by mast cells and/or basophils)
opening of vessels, which increases blood flow to area.
What does histamine increase the delivery of? (Relsease of chemicals by mast cells and/or basophils)
- Increase delivery of leukocytes and chemical factors that inhibit infection.
- Clotting factors, complement, etc
ederma(_____) causes.... (Relsease of chemicals by mast cells and/or basophils)
more fluid into lymphatic vessels.
What initiates the inflammatory response?
chemicals released from damaged cells
The chemicals released from damaged cells....(2)
- 1. attracts neutrophiles and cause them to leave the blood
- 2. Stimulate release of chmicals from mast cell and basophils
- some microbial products directly (LPS)
- Complement activation
What are the 3 activation pathways?
- 1. Classical Pathway
- 2. Alternate Pathway
- 3. Lectin Pathway
Alternate pathway- Example?
contact with certain microbial molecules Ex. LPS
What are cytokines? example?
- Chemicals released by some cells that affect the activities of other cells.
- Ex. a & B interferon
- Secreated by viral infected cells
- Stimulate production of AVPs in nearby cells
- inhibit replication of viral nucleic acids in these cells.
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