microbiology unit 3 Non-Specific Host Defense

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Anonymous
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184574
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microbiology unit 3 Non-Specific Host Defense
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2012-11-20 08:02:32
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Microbiology exam
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chapt 16 lucier @ ACC bio275
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  1. Epidermis
    Dead, dry, kertinized, temporary surface.
  2. The epidermis is the layer at which sweat comes from. What is in the sweat?
    Salt and lysozyme
  3. Epidermis pH? (high or low?)
    Low pH
  4. Dermis also contains ________.  This layer of skin is associated with what type of tissue? Which is located where?
    salt. Lymphatic Tissue. Just beneath the dermis
  5. Epithelial Tissue lines what 3 tracts?
    • 1. Respiratory Tract
    • 2. Digestive Tract
    • 3. Urogenital Tract
  6. What is the job of mucus in terms of the microbes and host cell? What may the mucus contain?
    It keeps the microbes from binding to host cell surfaces. May contain antimicrobial chemicals. 
  7. What is the name of the mucus membrane found in the respiratory tract? What is its job?
    Mucociliary blanket. Inhaled microbes get trapped and transported to stomach.
  8. What's the pH in the digestive tract? (high or low?)
    Low pH
  9. Neutrophils (aka ________) How do neutrophils work? Which means they are ph________.
    (PMN) They migrate to damaged/infected areas in blood. Phagocytic.
  10. Eosinophils are anti-________. How is their inflammatory response?
    Anti-parasitic. Limited Immune Response
  11. Basophils are apart of what kinda of response?
    inflammatory response
  12. Two types of lymphocytes
    • 1. T-Cells
    • 2. B-Cells
  13. T-cells are responsible for.....
    cell mediated immunity.
  14. B-cells are responsible for....
    humoral response.
  15. Mast cells are apart of what type of response? Which have what type of distribution?
    Inflammatory response. Widely distributed
  16. Macrophages are ph______. What are involved in what type of immunity?
    phagocytic. Involved in specific immunity and other responses.
  17. Dendritic cells are involved in what type of immunity?
    specific immunity
  18. MHC class 1 proteins are produced by....
    most of the cells in the body
  19. What does NK cells does if they loose the MHC 1 protein?
    They destroy the cell. 
  20. 3 locations for lymphatic tissue
    • 1. Spleen
    • 2. Tonsils
    • 3. Appendix
  21. The spleen what..... (in terms of passing fluids)
    blood rather than lymph passing through.
  22. What are the 2 major types of phagocytes?
    • 1. neutrophils (pmns)
    • 2. Macrophages
  23. How are opsonins formed?
    Built by body's cells.
  24. What are the 2 types of opsonins?
    • 1. Antibodies
    • 2. Activated Compement proteins
  25. PAMPs are molecules....
    only found in some microorganisms.
  26. Binding of PAMPs results in _________. Which causes........ (in terms of cytokines)
    Phagocytosis. Production and expression of cytokines that can affect other defense mechanisms.
  27. What does histamine cause? (Relsease of chemicals by mast cells and/or basophils)
    opening of vessels, which increases blood flow to area.
  28. What does histamine increase the delivery of? (Relsease of chemicals by mast cells and/or basophils)
    • Increase delivery of leukocytes and chemical factors that inhibit infection.
    •     Clotting factors, complement, etc
  29. ederma(_____) causes.... (Relsease of chemicals by mast cells and/or basophils)
    more fluid into lymphatic vessels.
  30. What initiates the inflammatory response?
    chemicals released from damaged cells
  31. The chemicals released from damaged cells....(2)
    • 1. attracts neutrophiles and cause them to leave the blood
    • 2. Stimulate release of chmicals from mast cell and basophils

    •   some microbial products directly (LPS)
    • Complement activation
  32. What are the 3 activation pathways?
    • 1. Classical Pathway
    • 2. Alternate Pathway
    • 3. Lectin Pathway
  33. Classical Pathway-
    antigen/antibody complexes

  34. Alternate pathway-                 Example?
    contact with certain microbial molecules Ex. LPS

  35. Lectin pathway
  36. What are cytokines?   example?
    • Chemicals released by some cells that affect the activities of other cells.
    •    Ex.  a & B interferon
    • Secreated by viral infected cells
    • Stimulate production of AVPs in nearby cells
    •    inhibit replication of viral nucleic acids in these cells.

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