Chapter 46 Part 2

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kbb5y2
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1846
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Chapter 46 Part 2
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2009-12-01 12:54:39
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Chapter 46 Biology
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Biology 109 at UMKC flash cards
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  1. What are the external organs of the male reproductive system?
    Penis, scrotum.
  2. What are the internal organs of the male reproductive system?
    gonads, accessory sex glands, and ducts.

  3. What is A?
    Seminal Vesicle

  4. What is B?
    Rectum

  5. What is C?
    Vas Deferens

  6. What is D?
    Ejaculatory Duct

  7. What is E?
    Prostate Gland

  8. What is F?
    Bulbourethral Gland

  9. What is G?
    Vas Deferens

  10. What is H?
    Epididymis

  11. What is I?
    Testis

  12. What is J?
    Scrotum

  13. What is K?
    Urinary Bladder

  14. What is L?
    Pubic Bone

  15. What is M?
    Erectile Tissue of Penis

  16. What is N?
    Urethra

  17. What is O?
    Glans Penis

  18. What is P?
    Prepuce
  19. What is the path that sperm travels through the male reproductive system?
    Seminiferous Tubules --> Epididymis --> Vas Deferens --> Ejaculatory Duct --> Urethra
  20. Testes are the __________________.
    Male gonads
  21. What do testis consist of?
    Many highly coiled seminiferous tubules surrounded by layers of connective tissyes, and leydig cells scattered between seminiferous tubules.
  22. When do testes descend into the scrotum?
    Just before birth.

  23. What is A?
    Urinary Bladder

  24. What is B?
    Prostate Gland

  25. What is C?
    Bulbourethral Gland

  26. What is D?
    Erectile Tissue of Penis

  27. What is E?
    Vas Deferens

  28. What is F?
    Epididymis

  29. What is G?
    Testes

  30. What is H?
    Seminal Vesicle

  31. What is I?
    Urethra

  32. What is J?
    Scrotum

  33. What is K?
    Glans Penis
  34. Accessory sex glands ___________________.
    Add secretions to semen.
  35. How much do the seminal vesicles contribute to semen volume?
    60%
  36. The prostate gland secretes into ____________.
    The urethra.
  37. What does prostatic fluid look like and what does it consist of?
    Thin and milky, it consists of anticoagulant enzymes and citrate.
  38. What does the bulbourethral gland do?
    It secretes a clear mucus which neutralizes any acidic urine remaining in the urethra. It also carries some sperm released before ejaculation.
  39. What is spermatogenesis?
    The production of mature sperm cells from spermatogonia.
  40. What is oogenesis?
    The production of ova from oogonia.
  41. How often does spermatogenesis occur in the adult male? Where does it occur?
    It occurs constantly and in the seminiferous tubules.

  42. What is A?
    Tail

  43. What is B?
    Plasma Membrane

  44. What is C?
    Middle Piece

  45. What is D?
    Neck

  46. What is E?
    Head

  47. What is F?
    Mitochondrion (they're spiral-shaped)

  48. What is G?
    Centriole

  49. What is H?
    Nucleus

  50. What is I?
    Acrosome
  51. A large number of mitochondria provide ________ to power the flagellum.
    ATP
  52. True or false: Females have all of the primary oocytes they will ever have at birth.
    True
  53. What triggers the completion of meiosis II for a female egg?
    Entry of sperm.
  54. If pregnancy does not occur, the _____________ is shed through the cervix and vagina.
    endometrium
  55. Estrous Cycles
    If pregnancy doesn't occur, the endometrium is reabsorbed by the uterus.
  56. Hormonal coordination of the menstrual and ovarian cycles involves how many hormones?
    5
  57. What hormones coordinate the menstrual and ovarian cycles?
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogens, and Progesterone
  58. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    Also called GnRH, it is secreted by the hypothalamus and helps coordinate menstrual and ovarian cycles.
  59. Follicle-stimulating hormone
    Also called FSH, it is secreted by the anterior pituitary and helps coordinate the menstrual and ovarian cycles.
  60. Luteinizing hormone
    Also called LH, it is secreted by the anterior pituitary and coordinates the menstrual and ovarian cycles.
  61. LH and FSH produced by the anteriour pituitary in response to ________.
    GnRH
  62. _________ stimulates follicle cells, and follicle cells make ___________.
    FSH, estrogen
  63. Slow rise in estrogen keeps ________ and ________ low.
    LS and FSH
  64. Sharp rise in estrogen causes _________ and _________ levels to peak.
    LH, FSH
  65. LH stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete __________ and ___________.
    Estrogens and progesterone.
  66. High levels of estrogens and progesterone inhibit _________ and _________ secretion.
    FSH and LH.
  67. Near the end of the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, what occurs to the corpus luteum?
    It disintegrates.
  68. At the end of the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, what occurs to estrogen and progesterone?
    Their levels decline abruptly.
  69. Proliferative phase of mestrual cycle
    Regeneration, thickening of endometrium. Lasts 1-2 weeks.
  70. Secretory phase of menstrual cycle
    Continued endometrial thickening and vascularization, the endometrium develops glands and secretes fluids rich in glycogen.
  71. The luteal phase of the ovarian cycle is coordinated with what?
    The secretory phase of the menstrual cycle.
  72. The estrogens and progesterone of the luteal phase stimulate what?
    The development and maintenance of the endometrium.
  73. The disintegration of the corpus luteum causes what?
    Estrogen and progesterone levels to decline.
  74. Estrogens are responsible for female secondary sex characteristics such as:
    Deposition of fat in the breasts and hips, increased water retention, calcium metabolism, breast development, and female sexual behavior.
  75. How old are women when they start menopause and why does it occur?
    Age 46-54, and it occurs because ovaries are not as responsive to gonadotropins.
  76. Androgens are secreted int the male by ____________ and are responsible for ___________.
    Leydig cells, primary and secondary sex characteristics, sexual behavior, and general aggressiveness.
  77. A human pregnancy averages ______ days from conception.
    266
  78. How long after fertilization does the zygote begin cleavage?
    24 hours
  79. How long after fertilization does the zygote reach the uterus as the embryo in a ball of cells?
    3-4 days
  80. How long after fertilization does the blastocyst form? How long does it take for the blastocyst to implant in the endometrium?
    1 week, 5 days.
  81. Where does the embryo obtain its nutrients in the first 2-4 weeks of its life?
    From the endometrium.
  82. The placenta provides for the diffusion of materials between the __________ and ___________.
    Maternal and embryonic circulations.
  83. During what trimester does oogenesis occur?
    The 1st trimester.
  84. When does the heart start beating in an embryo?
    4 weeks after fertilization.
  85. When are the basic forms of body structures of adults present in a human embryo?
    8 weeks after fertilization.
  86. When will drinking and drugs be most likely to affect an embryo?
    In the first 8 weeks of its life.
  87. What does the embryo secrete?
    Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).
  88. What does HCG do?
    It maintains the corpus luteum and endometrium.
  89. When pregnant, a woman's corpus luteum makes more progesterone. What does this do?
    Increases the mucus of the cervix, encourages placental growth, enlarges the uterus, causes menstrual and ovarian cycles to stop, and causes rapid enlargement of the breasts.
  90. When does the corpus luteum deteriorate? What makes progesterone after it deteriorates?
    During the 2nd trimester, the placenta.
  91. What sets off oxytocin, what does oxytocin do, and what type of feedback loop does it have?
    Estrogen from the ovaries, causes the uterus to contract for birth, positive feedback loop.
  92. What is the first stage of labor?
    The opening up and thinning of the cervix.
  93. What is the second stage of labor?
    Expulsion of the baby as a result of strong uterine contractions.
  94. What is the third stage of labor?
    Expulsion of the placenta.

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