11.2.3 The States of Italy

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11.2.3 The States of Italy
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2012-11-20 09:06:49
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  1. Italy
    • a.      Italy failed to develop a centralized monarchical state
    •                                                               i.      Papal opposition to rule of the Hohenstaufen emperors guaranteed that
    • b.      Southern Italy divided into Naples and Sicily
    •                                                               i.      Center of peninsula under shaky control of the papacy
    • c.       Numerous city sates
  2. Tendencies of 14th C.
    •                                                               i.      Replacement of republican gov’ts by tyrants
    •                                                             ii.      Expansion of larger city-states at expense of the less powerful ones
    • 1.      nearly all cities of northern Italy began existence as free communes with republican governments
  3. Intense internal strife-->
    •                                                               i.      intense internal strife led city-states to resort to temporary expedients, allowing rule by one man with dictatorial powers
    • 1.      limited rule, however, soon became long-term despotism as tyrants used force to maintain themselves in power
    • a.      tried to legitimize power by purchasing titles from emperor
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In this way, the Visconti became the dukes of Milan, and the deste, the dukes of Ferrara
  4. Other Changes
    • a.      Other change of great significance was the development of larger, regional states as the larger states conquered the smaller ones
    •                                                               i.      To fight, city-states relied on mercenaries, whose leader called condottieri sold the services of their bands to the highest bidder
    • 1.      Mercenaries wreaked havoc; many foreigners who went to Italy during periods of truce of Hundreds Year War
  5. a.      By the end of the fourteenth century, three states dominated northern Italy:__
     despotic state of Milan, republican states of Florence and Venice
  6. Duchy of Milan
    •                                                               i.      One of richest city-states, but one of most agitated until Visconti family established selves as hereditary despots of Milan in 1322
    • 1.      Giangaleazzo Visconti (1385-1402) transformed this despotism into hereditary duchy by purchasing title of duke from emperor in 1395
  7. Duchy of Milan: Giangaleazzo
    1.      Duchy of Milan extended power over all of Lombardy and even threatened to conquer much of northern Italy until the duke’s death before Florence gates in 1402
  8. Republic of Florence
    •                                                               i.      Initially a free commune dominated by patrician class of nobles called grandi
    •                                                             ii.      Economy’s rapid expansion à new wealthy merchant-industrialist class called popolo grasso
    • 1.      1293: dominant role in government by establishing a new constitution known as the Ordinances of Justice
  9. Republic of Florence
    Ordinances of Justice
    • a.      Provided republican government controlled by the seven major guilds of the city, which represented the interests of the wealthier classes
    • b.      Executive power in hands of council of elected priors—the signoria—and a standard-bearer of justice called the gonfalonier, assisted by a number of councils with advisory and overlapping powers
  10. Rep. of Florence:
    Popolo Minute and Ciompi
    •                                                               i.      Mid-14th: revolutionary activity by popolo minute, small shopkeepers and artisans, won them a share in government
    •                                                             ii.      Even greater expansion when ciompi were allowed representation after 1378 revolt
    • 1.      Four years later, counterrevolution brought popolo grasso back into control
  11. 1382: Florentine government
    •                                                               i.      1382: Florentine government controlled by small merchant oligarchy that manipulated republican government
    • 1.      Florence also successful in wars against neighbors at this time, conquering most of Tuscany and establishing self as major territorial state
  12. Republic of Venice
    Constitution of 1297
    •                                                               i.      Rich from commercial activityà merchant families became wealth
    •                                                             ii.      Constitution of 1297

    •  1.      Patricians took control of republic
    • a.      In this year, the Great council, the source of all political power, was closed to all but members of about two hundred families
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Hereditary patriciate
  13. Doge
    Actual Power
    gov't
    •                                                               i.      Doge was the executive head since Early Middle ages, but by 1300, largely a figurehead
    • 1.      Actual power in Great Council and Senate, while Council of Ten, formed in 1310, became real executive power
    •                                                             ii.      Venetian government respected by contemporaries for stability
  14. Policy of Expanision
    • 1.      Created a commercial empire by establishing colonies and trading posts in eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea as well a continuing commercial monopolies in byzantine Empire
    • a.      Venice began to conquer territory adjoining it to northern Italy

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