11.3 The Decline of The Church

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  1. Papacy 
    Boniface and Major Issue
    •  a.      Reached height in 13th century
    •                                                               i.      Doctrine of “fullness of power” as spiritual head of Christendom and claims to universal temporal authority over all secular rulers
    • 1.      Papal claims not compatible with growing secular monarchiesà conflict
    • Struggle between papacy and secular monarcheies began with Boniface VIII                   
    •                                             i.      Major issue:
    • 1.      Philip desired new revenues and claimed the right to tax the French clergy
    • 2.      Boniface VIII responded that clergy of any state couldn’t pay taxes to their secular ruler without papal consent
  2. Underlying issue
    • I a.      Underlying issue: papal claims to universal authority over both church and state, which necessitated complete control over the clergy, and the claims of the king that all subjects, including clergy, were under jurisdiction of the crown and subject to the king’s authority
  3. Boniface's papal bulls (letters)--> __
    What did it state?
    • Unam Sanctam (1302)                                             
    •                   i.      Strongest statement made on supremacy of spiritual authority over temporal authority
    • 1.      Excommunicated Philip IVà Philip hired forces to capture and try Bonifaceà Boniface captured and rescuedà shock led to pope’s deathà no pope attempted to renew claims of Boniface
    • b.      Philip IV, to ensure position, pressured college of cardinals to select Frenchman as pope in 1305
    •                                                               i.      New pope, Clement V resided in Avignonà problem 
  4. The Papacy at Avignon (1305-77)
    • a.      Led to decline in papal prestige and growing antipapal sentiment
    •                                                               i.      Rome= traditional capital of universal church/ pope= bishop of Rome
    •                                                             ii.      Unseemly that head of Catholic Church should reside elsewhere
    •                                                           iii.      1330sà popes built palaces at Avignon
  5. Factors leading to decline in papal prestige during Avignonese residency
    •                                                               i.      They were believed to be Captives of French monarchy
    •                                                             ii.      During 72 years of Avignonese papacy, 113/134 popes were French
    •                                                           iii.      Residency was turning point in church’s attempt to adapt self to changing economic and political conditions of Europe
    • 1.      Centralized administration by developing specialized bureaucracy
    •                                                           iv.      Popes wanted to find new sources of revenue to compensate for loss of income from Papal Statesà taxes on clergy
    •                                                             v.      Splendor of pope and cardinals in Avignon was criticized
    • 1.      Avignon= symbol of abuse within church and people wanted pope’s return
  6. Catherine of Siena
    • sent on a mission to Pope Gregory XI 
    • a.      Catherine’s admonition followed when Gregory XI, seeing decline in papal prestige, returned to Romeà died after in 1378
  7. College of Cardinals
    • a.      College of cardinals met to elect a new pope, but citizens of Rome feared another Frenchman would be chosenà threatened life of cardinals unless Roman or Italian electedà Italian archbishop of Bari elected as Pope Urban VI
    • b.      Urban’s plans of reform
  8. Urban VI's Plans of Reform
    •                                                               i.      Reform papal curia and swamp college of cardinals with enough new Italian cardinals to eliminate French majority
    • 1.      After cardinals safe from Roman mob, they issued a manifesto revoking the papacy from Urban, choosing a Frenchman instead, Clement VII, who returned to Avignon while Urban remained in Romeà Great Schism
  9. Great Schism
    • a.      Great Schismà loyalty divided
    •                                                               i.      Urban: England, Germany, Scandinavia, Italy
    •                                                             ii.      Clement: France, Spain, Scotland, s. Italy
    •                                                           iii.      Divisions followed political lines and reflected division between English and French in Hundred Years War
    • 1.      Need for political support caused popes to subordinate their policies to the policies of the states
    •                                                           iv.      Lasted nearly forty years
    •                                                             v.      Aggravated financial abuses that developed within church during Avignonese papacy
    • 1.      Two papal administrative systems worked to increase taxes
    •                                                           vi.      Damaged faith of Christians
    • 1.      Pope seen as leader and held keys; but due to popes bashing each other as Antichrist, questioning ensued
  10. a.      Dissatisfaction with papacyà
    Marsiglio of Padua
    • calls for revolutionary approach to solve church’s institutional problem                                                            
    •    i.      (rector of University of Paris and author of Defender of the Peace
    • 1.      Denied that temporal authority subject to spiritual
    • a.      Instead, he argued that church was only one element of society and must confine itself only to spiritual functions
    • 2.      The church is a community of faithful in which all authority is derived from the entire community
    • a.      Clergy hold no special authority form god; only administer affairs on behalf of all Christians
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Final authority in spiritual matters not with pope, but general church council representing all members
  11. Cinciliar Movement
    What is conciliarism?
                                                                  i.      Conciliarism= belief that only a general council of the church could end schism and bring reform to church in its head and members
  12. Conciliar movement: problem?
    •                                                               i.      Problem was who should call the council
    • 1.      Church law= only pope could convene council
    • a.      Professors said that popes wouldn’t do it and that members of church hierarchy or secular princes should
    •                                                             ii.      Council finally convened by cardinals from both sides= Council of Pisa (1409)
    • 1.      Deposed two popes; elected Alexander Và disastrousà three popes
  13. Conciliar Movement
    Leadership in new council 
    •                                                               i.      passed to Holy Roman Emperor, Sigismund
    • 1.      Under him, a new ecumenical church council met at Constance from 1414 to 1418
    • a.      Ended schism: after three competing popes resigned or were deposed, a new conclave elected new pope, Martin V
  14. I.                   Popular Religion in an Age of Adversity
    Problems with popes--> ? 
    Black Death impact
    • a.      popes led to decline in prestige and respect for institutional church, especially the papacy a.      the Black Death and its recurrences made important impact o n religious life of ordinary Christians by heightening their preoccupation with death and salvation
    •                                                               i.      Church did not provide spiritual conform due to fleeing priests
  15. I.                   Popular Religion in an Age of Adversity
    Christian Response
    •                                                               i.      Tendency to stress the performance of good works to get salvation
    • 1.      bequests to hospitals and charities increased; family chapels established, which became important due to idea of purgatory
    • a.      place where souls went to be purged of punishment for sins committed in lifeà purified before meeting heaven
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      prayers and mass shorten time
  16. I.                   Popular Religion in an Age of Adversity
    New Trend
    • a.      New Trend: new emphases on mechanical path to salvation
    •                                                               i.      Chalking up good deeds to ensure salvation done in numerous ways, especially indulgences
    • 1.      Pilgrimages and charitable contributions were good works that could be accomplished without involvement of clerics, a reflection of the loss of faith in the institutional church and its clergy and another noticeable feature of popular religious life
    • 2.      People also wanted to play more active role in their own salvation
  17. I.                   Popular Religion in an Age of Adversity
    • 1.      Immediate experience of oneness with God
    • 2.      Characterized the teaching of Meister Eckhart, who sparked the mystical movement in western Germany
    • a.      Dominican theologian who wrote learned Latin works on theology and popular preacher who preached on union of soul with God, which was attainable
    • 1.      Eckhart’s movement spread from Germany in to Low Countries, where it became Modern Devotion, founded by Gerard Groote
  18. Gerald Groote
    • a.      Converted and entered monastery before reentering world
    • b.      Messages: to achieve true spiritual communion with God, people must imitate Jesus and lead lives dedicated to serving the needs of their fellow human beings
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Emphasized a simple inner piety and morality based on Scripture and avoidance of complexities of theology
  19. Modern Devotion attracted followers who became __.
    Brothers of the Common Life

    • 1.      Houses of the Brothers, and Sisters of the Common Life, were founded
    • 2.      Not regular religious orders
    • a.      Laypeople who took no formal monastic vows but were nevertheless regulated by quasi-monastic rules that they imposed on their own communities
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Established schools throughout Germany and the Netherlands in which they stressed their message of imitating the life of Jesus by serving others
    • b.      Attest to the vitality of spiritual life among lay Christians in the 14th century
  20. Female Mystics
    • 1.      Fating and receiving the Eucharist was religious practice
    • a.      Catherine of Siena did not eat solid food and lived on cold water, sucked herbs, and spit them out; primary food was Eucharist
  21. I.                   Changes in Theology
    • a.      14th c. challenged theological framework, esp. with questioning of Aquinas’ works, which was not widely accepted
    •                                                               i.      Differences with him were kept within a framework of commonly accepted scholastic thought until William Occam threatened the scholastic achievement
  22. Occam
    •                                                               i.      Posited radical interpretation of nominalism
    • 1.      All universals or general concepts were simply names
    • 2.      Individual objects perceived by senses were real
    • a.      Although mind could analyze, it couldn’t make truths about higher things
    • b.      Reason could not be used to substantiate spiritual truths
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Truths of religion could not be known by act of faith or reason
  23. Acceptance of Occam's Theory
    • a.      Acceptance of Occam’s theory posed a threat to theological thought
    •                                                               i.      Emphasis on use of reason impacted physical science by creating support for rational and scientific analysis
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11.3 The Decline of The Church
2012-11-20 19:17:37

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