microbiology unit 3 exam

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microbiology unit 3 exam
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2012-11-20 10:08:13
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Chap 17 Adaptive immunity Lucier @ ACC fall 2012
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  1. Acquire Immunity Fig. Breaks down into 2---2
  2. What is an antigen? And what's their chemical nature?
    Substance against which the immune response occurs. Proteins and carbohydrates
  3. Antigenic Determinants (___________) are a specific....
    (epitopes) ....part of antigen targeted by immune response.
  4. What do antigenic determinants produce when recognized?
    surface receptors that will bind to it. 
  5. What involves various types of T cells?
    Cell Mediated Immunity (CMI)
  6. What are TH? Example?
    What are TC? Example?
    • T helper cells. Ex. CD4+
    • T cytotoxic cells. Ex. CD8+
  7. What is the initiation of CMI? Which is what type of cell?
    Antigen Presentation. Antigen Presenting Cells (APSs)-Macrophages and dendritic cells.
  8. What is the job of antigen presentation?
    • phagocytize and digest antigen. Fragments(potentialADs) are displayed on cell surface and bound to a MHC protein.
    • T cells bind to displayed ADs.
  9. What does the TH cells bind to? Which then cause the activated TH cells to.....
    • MHCII plus AD displayed on APC.
    •    Undergo cell division. Large popluations of cells targeted to antigen proven to be a threat. –Several active types of TH cells and memory TH
    •    Secrete cytokines. 
  10. Cytokines are....
    required for activation of TC , B cells and several other types of cells.
  11. What is the activation requirements for the CTL response?
    –TCs bind to MHC-I plus AD displayed on APC

    –Cytokines from activated TH cells
  12. What is the activation requirements for the CTL response?
    •Activation Results

    –Cell division

    • •Larger population of activated cells (CTL’s) targeted
    • to current threat.

    •Memory
  13. Humoral Immunity....
    • •B cells become programmed to respond to a particular antigenic
    • determinant.

    • –Produce proteins called antibodies (immunoglobulins) that
    • specifically bind to that antigenic determinant.
  14. T-Dependent B Cell reponse
    –B cell is activated

    • •Cell division creates a large population of B cells
    • that target this AD

    –Some form the memory for this AD

    • –Some become plasma cells that secrete antibodies
    • targeted to this AD
  15. •B cell binds to antigen and presents AD.

    •TH binds to presented AD and secretes  cytokines.
  16. Actions of Antibodies
    • •Effects of antibodies binding to their ADs.  (formation of antigen-antibody
    • complexes) 

    –complement activation (classical pathway)

    • –opsonization (Fc region binds to
    • phagocytes)

    • –agglutination (inactivation &/or increased
    • efficiency of phagocytosis)

    –neutralization (toxins, viruses)

    –antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    –*know the bold words in the next slide*
  17. What are memory cells? What do they do...?
    • - large pool of cells programmed for this AD -
    • some can immediately become plasma cells
    • –rapid increase in titer prevents significant increase
    • in number of microbes so no illness 
  18. **explain why we don’t get sick after initial
    exposure** 
    •Antibody Kinetics

    • –Primary Response - first exposure
    • to AD

    • •7 - 10 days for rise in titer due
    • to time needed for T and B cells to proliferate

    • –time for microbe to grow and
    • disease symptoms to appear

    Secondary (Anamnestic) Response - subsequent exposure to AD
  19. TH and TC memory cells are also produced...
    This allows...
    during primary reponse. rapid response by these cells to subsequent infections.

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