The Nervous System

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rwilliams144
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184645
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The Nervous System
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2012-11-21 16:01:24
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nervous system
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nervous system, cranial nerves, eye, and ear
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  1. what does the nervous system control?
    • all body cells and systems
    • communication, control, and integration
    • Homeostatis is possible only if this system is working properly
    • transmits info rapidly by means of nerve impulse conducted from one body area to another. 
  2. Central Nervous system divisions
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
  3. Peripheral Nervous System Divisions
    • location:
    •   cranial nerves
    •   spinal nerves
    • function:
    •   sensory-- afferent
    •   motor-- efferent
    •     autonomic-- involuntary
    •     somatic-- voluntary
    •   interneuron
    •     connect sensory and motor
    •     found only in spinal cord
  4. CNS diagram
  5. cell of the nervous system- Neurons
    • Parts
    •   cell body
    •   fibers
    •     denrites
    •     axxons
  6. myelin sheath
    • white fatty substance
    • surrounds axons
    • segmented
  7. Schwann cells
    • Forms Myelin
    • outside the CNS-- PNS
  8. Neurilemma
    • outer cell membrane of schwann cell
    • essential role in regeneration
    • found in PNS
  9. Node of Ranvier
    • interruption in myelin sheath
    • indentations between adjacent schwann cells
  10. Neuroglia
    • connective tissue
    • supporting cells
    • glioma-- common brain tumor
  11. Astrocytes 
    • star shaped cells
    • anchor small blood vessels to neurons
    • From blood brain barrier
    •   separates blood tissue and nervous tissue
    • protects brain
  12. microglia
    carry on phagocytosis in inflammed brain tissue
  13. Oligondendroglia
    • form myelin sheaths on axons in CNS
    •   no schwann cells
    •   regenerration is impossible
  14. Nerves
    • nerve-- PNS
    •  
    • Tract- CNS
  15. White matter
    • composed of myelinated fibers
    • nerves or tracts
  16. Gray matter
    • cell bodies
    •   ganglia- group of cell bodies
    • unmyelinated fibers- axons and dendrites
    • forms H core of spinal cord
  17. endoneurium- nerve covering
    surrond individual fibers
  18. perineurium- nerve covering
    surrounds a group of nerve fibers- fascicle
  19. epineurium
    surround entire nerve
  20. Reflex Arcs- Spinal reflexes
    • involuntary responses
    • does not involve brain
    •   receptor- detects change or stimulus and generates impule
    •   sensory neuron-- afferent
    •   interneuron (3 neuron arch only)
    •   motor neuron- efferent
    •   effector
    • Involves
    •   contaction of muscle
    •   secretion of a gland
  21. 2 Neuron Arc
    • receptor 
    • dendrite of sensory neuron
    • cell body- posterior(dorsal) root ganglion
    • axon of sensory neuron
    • cell body of motor neuron
    • axon of motor neuron- anterior(ventral) root
    • synapse
    • effector- muscle or gland
  22. 3 neuron arc- withdraw reflex to avoid injury
    • receptor- detects change or stimulus and generates impulse
    • sensory neuron
    • central nervous system
    •   synapse
    •   interneuron
    •   synapse
    • motor neuron
    • synapse
    • effector
  23. 3 neuron arc pathway
    • receptor
    • dendrite of sensory neuron
    • cell body- posterior (dorsal) root ganglion
    • axon of sensory neuron
    • synapse
    • interneuron
    • synapse
    • dendrite of motor neuron
    • cell body of motor neuron
    • axon of motor neuron- anterior(ventral) root
    • synapse
    • effector muscle or gland
  24. nerve impulse
    self propagating wave of elctrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron membrane
  25. nerve impulses- mechanism
    • excitation
    •   adequate stimulus
    •   increased permeability of neuron membrane
    •   inward movement of positive sodium ions
    •   negative charge outside stimulated point- beginning of the nerve impulse
  26. saltatory conduction
    impulses move faster on myelinated membranes
  27. synapse
    • allow for transmission of signals from one neuron to the next
    • pre-synaptic neuron to the post synaptic neuron
  28. synapse- structures
    • presynaptic neuron- synaptic knob-axon
    •   vesicles
    •   neurotransmitters
    • synaptic cleft
    • post synaptic neuron- dendrite
  29. presynaptic neuron
    • synaptic knob
    •   knob at the end of the terminal branch of presynaptic neuron
    •     vesicles
    •     neurotransmitters
  30. synaptic cleft
    • space
    •   pre synaptic neuron
    •   post synaptic neuron
  31. post synaptic neuron
    • plasma membrane
    • protein molecules
    •   act as receptors
    • initiate impule in post synaptic neuron by increasing permeability to positive ions
  32. neurotransmitters
    • CHEMICALs by which neurons communicate
    • assist, stimulate, or inhibit post synaptic neurons
  33. neuro-transmitters types
    • acetlycholine*
    • catecholamines*
    •   norepinephrine, epinephrine
    •   dopamine
    •     inhibit movement
    •     affects emotional response
    •     as a drug- effect similar to epinephrine and norephinephrine
    • serotonin
    •   brain
    •     attention
    •     emotion
    •     regulates sleep and wake cycles
    •  intestine
    •     stimulates smooth muscle to contract
    •   vasoconstrictor
    • Neuroactive peptides- inhibit pain
    •   endorphins
    •   enkephalins
  34. Central nervous system
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
  35. Brain
    • brain stem
    • diecncephalon
    •   thalmus
    •   hypothalmus
    • cerebellum
    • cerebrum
  36. Brain Stem location
    • above large hole in occipital bone
    • foramen magnum
  37. brain stem- parts
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    •   bridge
    •   reflex center for some cranial nerves
    • midbrain
  38. brain stem structure
    white matter with some gray matter
  39. brain stem function
    • vital centers- medulla oblongata 
    •   cardiac
    •   respiratory
    •   vaso motor- diameter of blood vessels`
  40. 2 way conduction path for Brain stem
    sensory tracts- conduct sensory impulses to higher portion of brain

    • motor tracts- conduct impulses from the higher parts of the brain to the spinal cord
    •   decussation of the pyramids-- morot tracts cross
    •     R brain controls l side of body
    •     L brain controls r side of body
  41. decussation of the pyramids-
    motor tracts cross
  42. Diencephalon
    • thalmus
    • hypothalmus
  43. hypothalmus- location
    below thalmus
  44. structure of hypothalmus
    • posterior pituitary gland and pit stalk
    • Gray matter!
  45. Function of hypothalmus
    • controls autonomic nervous system
    •   indirectly controls all int organs
    •   coordination between voluntary and autonomic functions
    • controls hormone secretion
    •   imp link between endocrine and nervous system
    •   relationship with pit gland
    • regulates water balance-- maintains homeostasis
    •   manf ADH
    • maintains body temp
  46. hypothalmus
    • Food and Water intake
    •   hunger and satiety centers
    •   osmoreceptors
    • sleep and waking
    •   circadian rhythm
  47. behavioral responses associated with emotion
    • pleasure
    • pain
    • anger
    • fear
    • sex drive
    • sexual response-- orgasim
  48. Thalmus location
    • above hypothalmus
    • dumb bell shaped mass
    • extends from r to l cerebral hemispheres
  49. thalmus structure
    gray matter
  50. thalmus function
    • relays impulses to the cerebral cortex from the sense organs
    • associates sensations with emotions- integrates sensory impulses
    • suppresses unimportant sensations
  51. cerebellum
    second larges part of human brain
  52. structure of cerebellum
    • outer layer- gray
    • inner- white matter
  53. functions of cerebellum
    • proprioception
    •   awarness of posture and movement changes
    •   production of normal movements
    •   controls  muscle tone, equilibrium and posture
    • Voluntary movements
  54. cerebrum
    • uppermost part of brain
    • responsible for higher brain functions
    •   inpulses are received and analyzed
    • Largest portion of brain
  55. structure of cerebrum
    • outer layer- cerebral cortex- gray matter
    • inner- white matter and gray matter- basal ganglia
    • convolutions or gyri ridges
    • sulci- groves
    • longtudinal fissure
    •   deepest sulcus
  56. divisions of cerebrum
    • hemispheres divided by long fissures
    • R Hem- controls movement of L side of body
    •   music and emotion
    • L Hem- 
    •   movement R side of body
    •   lang, analytical skills, and logic
    • Corpus Callosum
    •   connects L and R hem
  57. cerebrum lobes
    • names for bones that lie over them
    • work together but influence particular catergories of function
  58. Frontal Lobe- motor lobe
    • voluntary skeletal movements
    • broca's speech center
  59. parietal lobe- sensory
    processes sensory data
  60. temporal lobe- auditory area
    • perception and interpretation of sound
    • wernicke;s area- comprehending language
    • olfactory area
  61. occipital lobe
    • visual center
    • interpret visual communication
  62. NOTE
    communication centers are located in the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes. together these allow us to speak, read, and understand
  63. cerebrum function
    • higher mental functions- thinking
    • conscious memory
    • emotion, sensations
    • voluntary movements
    • vision, hearing, speech
  64. spinal cord
    • protected by spinal colum
    • extends from occipital bone to first lumbar vertebrae
    • protected by veterbrae
  65. spinal cord structure
    • Core- Gray Matter (H shaped)
    •   posterior (dorsal) horn
    •   carries sensory info
    •   anterior (ventral) horn
    •   carries motor info
    •   contains cell bodies of motor neuron
    • Exterior- White matter- myelinated nerve fibers- tracts
    •    ascending- sensory- afferent
    •   descending-motor- efferent
  66. spinal cord functions
    • spinal cord reflexes
    • carry signals to brain
    •   ascending 
    •   sensory tracts
    • carry signals away from brain
    •   descending
    •   motor tracts
  67. Central Nervous system coverings and fluids
    • Coverings-
    •   cranial bones
    •   vertebrae
    •   cerebral and spinal meninges
    •     dura mater- outermost
    •     arachnoid
    •       subdural space- potential space bt arachnoid and dura
    •       subarac space- space bt arach and pia mater
    • Pia mater- innermost
  68. spinal injection
    • subarachnoid space. 
    • bt L3 or L4 or L4 and L5
  69. epidural
    • injected above dura
    • L3 and L4 or L4 and L5
  70. clinical condion of spinal cord
    meningitis- inflammation of the covering

    spinal cord starts at L1
  71. cerebro spinal fluid location
    • subarach space
    • central canal
    • cerebra ventricles-- 4
    •   L and R lateral
    •     ant horn
    •     post horn
    •     inf horn
    • third ventricle
    • fourth ventricle
    • bt brain and spinal cord
  72. cerebrospinal fluid Formation
    • formed through plasma
    •   filtered thru
    • choroid plexus
    •   network of capillaries
    •   found in 3rd and 4th ventricle
    •   blood brain barrier- prevents certain sub from entering the brain
    • Charateristics
    •   glucose and protein
    •   lacks RBC and WBC
  73. Hydrocephalus- Water baby
    • spinal fluid wasn't circulating and accumulate in skull. severe brain damage. head swells. 
    • Shunt may be used to reroute fluid into peritoneal area.
  74. PNS classification
    • Cranial Nerves- 12 pairs
    • Spinal nerves- 31 pairs
    •   attaches to spinal cord by 2 short roots
    •     doral root- dorsal ganglion
    •     ventral root
    •   mixed nerves
    •     sensory fibers- dorsal
    •     motor fibers- ventral
  75. divisions of PNS
    • sensory- afferent system
    •   carries info from receptor to CNS
    • motor- efferent
    •   carries info from cns to effectors
    •   divisions
    •     somatic nervous system
    •     autonomic
    •       sympathetic NS
    •       Parasympathetic NS
  76. Cranial Nerves location
    • PNS
    • arise from brain
    • connect brain with neck and structures in thorax and abdomen
  77. cranial nerve functions
    • motor
    • sensory
    • both- mixed
  78. Vagus Nerve- cranial nerve
    • lowers heart rate when stimulated
    • can be stimulated by enemas, digital rectal exams, disimpaction, etc... 
  79. Cranial nerves III, IV, VI
    • assess eye movements and pupillary response
    • assess increase intra-cranal pressure
  80. Spinal nerves- 31 pairs
    • cervical- 8
    • thoracic- 12
    • lumbar- 5
    • sacral- 5
    • coccygeal- 1

    7 cervical verterbrae and 8 cervical nerves- line up
  81. structure of spinal nerve
    • sensory nerves
    •   dendrite of sensory nerve
    •   dorsal root ganglion- enlarged part of the dorsal root that contains the cell bodies of the sensory neurons
    •   dorsal root- connects nerve to spinal cord
    • Motor nerves
    •   cell bodies of motor nerves are located in the gray matter of the spinal cord
    •   ventral root- leaves spinal cord
    •   axxon of motor nerve- info leaves
  82. Spinal Nerve Functions
    • conduct sensory info 
    • conduct motor impulses
  83. plexus 
    • group of intersecting branches
    • cervical
    • brachial
    • lumbosacral
    • pudendal
  84. dermatome
    skin surface area supplied by a single spinal nerve
  85. divisions of spinal nerves
    • sensory- afferent
    • motor-efferent
  86. sensory- afferent
    carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs towareds the CNS 
  87. Motor- efferent
    • somatch nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system
  88. somactic nervous system- function
    • voluntary action
    • effector- skeletal muscles
    • conduction pathway
    •   single neuron(axon)
    •   impulses carried from CNS to effector without interbening synapse  
    •   long axon from spinal cord to effector
  89. Autonomic nervous system function
    • automatic function
    • effectors-
    •   cardiac muscle
    •   smooth muscle
    •     hollow organs
    •     blood vessels
    •   glandular epitheileal tissue
    • conduction pathway
    •   two neuron relay- various interruptions
    •   synapse
  90. autonomic nervous system
    • structure
    •   pre ganglionic autonomic neuron
    •     carries info fromCNS
    • autonomic ganglion
    • synapse (in ganglion)- bt 2 nerves
    • post ganglionic neuron to effector
  91. Autonomic nervous systems
    • sympathetic
    • para sympathetic
  92. Parasympathetic nervous system structure
    • Structure- cranioscaral
    •   preganglionic axons- long
    •   ganglia are far from spinal cord
    •   postganglionic axons-short
    • effector- one organ
  93. Parasym Function
    • general housekeeping
    • rest and digest
    • maintain normal function (heart, breathing, peristalsis, urination)
  94. Sympathetic nervous system structure
    • thoracolumbar
    •   preganglionic axons- short
    •   chain of sympathetic ganglion in front of and at each side of the spinal colum
    • Effectors
    •   widespread
    •   affect several organs
  95. Sympathetic Function
    • fight or fligh
    •   controls visceral effectors during times of strenuous exercise or strong emotion-- anger, fear. 
  96. relationship to homeostatsis
    • visceral effectors are double innervated
    •   parasymphathetic function
    •   sympathetic funciton
    • bodies autonomic functions can be maintained or quickly restored
    • stimuli from the hypo and the limbic system(emotional brain) influence autonomic function
  97. Autonomic neurotransmitters- cholinergic
    • parasympathetic neurotransmitters
    •   released by cholinergic fibers
    •   target- cholinergic recepters
    • example
    •   acetlycholine
    •   most abuntant
  98. autonomic neurotransmtters- adrenergic- sympathomimetic
    • sympathetic neurotransmitters- catecholamines
    •   released by adrenergic fibers
    •   target- adrenerdic receptors
    •   examples
    •     epinephrine- adrenalin- stimulate heart-rate, force of contraction.
    •     relax bronchi- cardiac stimulation, bronchodilation
    •     norepinephrine- vasocontricter increase bp, cns stimulation
    •     dopamine
  99. Anticholinergic side effects:
    • Dry mouth
    • Urinary retention
    • Constipation
    • Blurred vision
    • Confusion
    • Tachycardia
    • Increasing intraocular pressure
  100. Adrenergic blockers- beta blockers
    • uses
    •   control hypertension'
    •   control arrythmias
    • side effects
    •   hypotension
    •   bradycardia
    •   bronchoconstriction

    Propranolol- Inderal 
  101. how to Remember Cranial nerves
    • 1 OLFACTORY                       ON
    • II OPTIC                                  OLD 
    • III OCULOMOTOR                OLYMPUS
    • IV TROCHLEAR                     TOWERING
    • V TRIGEMINAL                      TOP
    • VI ABDUCENS                        A
    • VII FACIAL                             FRIENDLY
    • VIII VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR VIKING
    • IX GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL   GREW
    • X VAGUS                                 VINES
    • XI ACCESSORY                      AND 
    • XII HYPOGLOSSAL                HOPS

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