11.4 The Cultural World of the 14th Century

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  1. In literature, several writers used __to produce notable works; The __ led to morbid themes and __, whose paintings expressed a new realism that would be developed further
    • vernacular__languages
    • Black Death
    • Giotto
  2. I.                   The Development of Vernacular Literature

    • a.      14th century= vernacular literature, esp. Italian
    •                                                               i.      Use of the Tuscan dialect common in Florence ensured its success as the basic modern Italian language
  3. Dante
    •                                                               i.      Old Florentine noble family  who held high political office in republican Florence; factional conflict led to his exile
    •                                                             ii.      Divine Comedy
    • 1.      Story of soul’s progression to salvation divided into hell, purgatory, and heaven
    • a.      Inferno=  he is led by Virgil (reason)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      At end, Beatrice (revelation) becomes guide to paradise and presents him to St. Bernard(mystical contemplation)à Mary (grace)
  4. Petrarch
    •                                                               i.      Florentine whose role in revival of classics made him a seminal figure in the literary Italian Renaissance
    •                                                             ii.      Sonnets; he is one of the greatest European lyric poets
    • 1.      Inspired by love for Laura
    • a.      A real woman involved with Petrarch
    •                                                           iii.      Less concerned to sing his lady’s praise than to immortalize his own thoughts, revealing a sense of stronger individuality
  5. Boccaccio
    •                                                               i.      Known for prose and used Tuscan dialect
    •                                                             ii.      While working for Bardi banking house, fell in love with Fiammetta, writing prose romances
    •                                                           iii.      Decameron set at time of Black Death
    • 1.      Stories reflect acceptance of basic Christian values, but presents society from a secular POV
    • a.      Seducer of women who is the real hero, not the knight, monk, or philosopher
    • b.      Reflects immediate easygoing, cynical postplague values
    •                                                           iv.      Later work gloomier and more pessimistic
  6. Chaucer
    •                                                               i.      Canterbury Tales
    • 1.      Beauty of expression and clear, forceful language transformed his East Midland dialect into the chief ancestor of the modern English language
    • 2.      Collection of stories by 29 pilgrims, giving chance to portray entire range of English society
    • 3.      Characters used to criticize corruption of church 
  7. Christine de Pizan
    • a.      Christine de Pizan
    •                                                               i.      One of the extraordinary vernacular writers
    •                                                             ii.      She had good education due to father’s position
    •                                                           iii.      Husband died when she was 25; left little income and three kidsà became writer
    • 1.      Poems popular, giving her financial security
    •                                                           iv.      Best known for French Prose works written in defense of women
  8. Christine de Pizan
    The Book of the City of Ladies
    • a.      Denounced male writers who argued that women needed to be controlled by men because they were prone to evil, unteachable, and easily swayed
    • b.      With the help of Reason, Righteousness, and Justice, she refutes these attacks
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Women not evil, they can learn
    • c.       Much of work is detailed discussion of women from past and present who distinguished themselves as leaders, warriors, wives, mothers, martyrs
    • d.      Ends by encouraging women to defend selves against men’s attacks
  9. Art and the Black Death: Morbid
    •                                                               i.      Painting skills in workshop; most famous works in Padua and Florence
    •                                                             ii.      Transcended his Byzantine school with a new kind of realism, a desire to imitate nature that Renaissance artists identified as basic component of Classical art
    •                                                           iii.      Figures were solid and rounded; placed realistically in relationship to each other and their background, they conveyed 3D depth
    • 1.      Expressive faces and physically realistic bodies gave sacred figures human qualities with which spectators could identify
  10. Black Death made visible impact on art
    •                                                               i.      Wiped out entire guilds of artists
    •                                                             ii.      Survivors not optimistic; more concerned about salvation
    •                                                           iii.      Postplague art began to concentrate on pain and death
    • 1.      Ars moriendi: art of dying
  11. The Triumph of Death by Francisco Traini
    • a.      The Triumph of Death by Francisco Traini
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Left: several nobles encounter three coffins containing decomposing bodies
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Right: aristocrats engage in pleasant pursuits but are threatened by Death in form of flying witch 
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11.4 The Cultural World of the 14th Century
2012-11-20 19:15:08

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