Society in an Age of Adversity

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Society in an Age of Adversity
2012-11-20 17:36:42

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  1. New inventions made an impact on daily life at the same time that the effects of the plague were felt.

    I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    Byproduct of Black Death
    • a.      Byproduct of the black death: greater regulation of urban activities by town governments
    •                                                                           i.      Authorities tried to keep cities cleaner by enacting new ordinances against waste products in the streets
    • 1.      Bathhouses closedà decline in cleanliness
  2. I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    •                                                                           i.      Medieval society thought it was lesser evil: better to take a prostitute than seduce virgins or wives
    • 1.      Demand high since males married late
    •                                                                         ii.      14th century: recession increased supply, while new hedonism increased demandà brothels
    • 1.      City authorities could supervise and tax prostitutes
    • a.      Charters granted to set up brothels
    • b.      Prostitutes had to wear special clothes to distinguish them 
  3. I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    Family Life
    •                                                                           i.      Medieval: nuclear families; wealthier had servants, apprentices, etc.
    •                                                                         ii.      Before Black Death: late marriages common
    • 1.      Husbands: 30s or 40s; wives: 20s
    • a.      Expense of setting up household necessitated the delay I marriage
    •                                                                       iii.      Postplague: reluctant to postpone living
  4. I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    •                                                                           i.      Fourteenth century: strengthened development
    • 1.      Aristotle, Aquinas, etc: men were active and domineering; women passive and submissive
    • a.      With training of lawyers, doctors, and priests, this idea was accepted
    • b.      Evident in legal systems, many of which limited the legal capacity of women
  5. I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    Genders--> Women
    • 1.      Women expected to give up active functions in society and remain subject to direction from males
    • a.      Although some women were running businesses, they were viewed as incapable of undertaking all men’s activities
    •                                                                         ii.      Europeans in the 14th c. imposed a division of labor roles between men and women that persisted until the Industrial Revolution
  6. I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    Benefits of Women from effects of hte Black Death
    •                                                                           i.      Benefits of women from effects of the Black Death
    • 1.      Death of males opened up new jobs for women
    • a.      Cloth making allowed women to assume better paying jobs as weavers
    • b.      Brewing an all-female profession
    • c.       Widows carried on husband’s business
  7. I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    •                                                                           i.      Parents in High and Later Middle Ages invested considerable resources and affection in raising children
    • 1.      Increase in specialized roles accompanying spread of commerce and city growth required commitment to educating children in market skills
    •                                                                         ii.      Schools to educate young
    • 1.      Florence: 8000-10000 boys and girls ages 6-12 went to grammar schools
    • a.      1100 boys went to six secondary schools preparing them for business
    • b.      600 studied Latin and logic
  8. I.                   Changes in Urban Life
    Effects of Plague
    • 1.      Same cities concerned about survival and health of children
    • a.      Hospitals established catering to needs of foundlings, supporting them until boys taught trade and girls could marry
  9. I.                   New Directions in Medicine
    Medical Hierarchy
    • physicians
    • surgeons
    • midwives/ barber-surgeons
    • apothecaries
  10. Physicians
    •                                                                           i.      Physicians, usually clergymen who were educated in universities and studied ancient people
    • 1.      Trained in theory but little or no clinical practice
    • 2.      14th c: educated in six chief medical schools
    • a.      Pre-plague medicine of university trained physicians
    •                                                                                                                                                   i.      Four humorsà human beings microcosm of the cosmos
    • 1.      Blood (heart)= air
    • 2.      Phlegm (brain)= water
    • 3.      Yellow bile (liver)= fire
    • 4.      Black bile (spleen)= earth
    •                                                                                                                                                 ii.      Good health from balance of these: sickness= unbalanced
    •                                                                                                                                               iii.      Job of medieval physician was to restore proper order through remedies
  11. Surgeons
    Mid-wives/ barber-surgeons
    •                                                                           i.      Surgeons who operated
    • 1.      Knowledge= practical experience
    •                                                                         ii.      Midwives and barber-surgeons
    • 1.      Delivered babies/ less trained than surgeons and performed menial tasks such as bloodletting and simple bone fractures (respectively)
    • 2.      Barber- surgeons shaved, cut hair , and pulled teeth
  12.                                                                           i.      Apothecaries
    1.      Filled herbal prescriptions and prescribed drugs on own authority
  13. Post-plague
    • a.      Postplague: they were unable to deal
    •                                                                           i.      When King Philip VI of France requested an opinion of the medical faculty of UParis, their advice was worthlessà crisisà new approaches to health care
  14. Results of inability to provide good medical advice
    • 1.      Rise of surgeons to greater prominence because of practical knowledge
    • a.      Recruited by universities
    • b.      Equal with physicians
    • c.        Greater emphasis on practical anatomy into university curriculumà medical textbooks
  15. Santiation adn public health
    •                                                                           i.      Increased attention to public health and sanitation
    • 1.      Public health laws and municipal boards of health (prevent plague)
    • a.      Boards of public health consisting of medical practitioners and public officials enforced sanitary conditions, reported on and attempted to isolate epidemics by quarantine, and regulate doctor activities
  16. The Clock
    •                                                                                                                  i.      Mechanical invented at end of 13th; perfected in 14th
    •                                                                         ii.      Time-telling clock byproduct of larger astronomical clock
    • 1.      Best designed by Giovanni di Dondi
    • a.      Contained zodiac signs but struck on hour
    • b.      Expensive; installed in towers of churches or municipal buildings

                                                                          iii.      First clock striking equal hours was in church in Milan                                 
  17. Conception of time
    • 1.      Middle Ages: time determined by natural rhythms or church bells rang at 3 hour intervals, corresponding to ecclesiastical offices of church
    • 2.      Made it possible to plan one’s day and organize one’s activities around regular striking of bells; new regularity into lives
  18. Eyeglass and Paper
    •                                                                           i.      Introduced in 13th; refined in 14th
    •                                                                         ii.      Not really effective by modern standards and expensive
    •                                                                       iii.      High cost in parchment forced people to write small; and eyeglasses helped
    • b.      Paper made from cotton rags
  19. Gunpowder
    •                                                                           i.      Invented by Chinese; appearance in west in 14th
    • 1.      Changed warfare
    • 2.      Use in cannons
    • a.      Dangerous as it caused explosions
    •                                                                                                                                                   i.      Attack on castle using the “Lion” killed king James II and retainers
  20. Canons
                                                                              i.      Improvement made and made them valuable in reducing both castles and city walls