Fireground Support Ch 5-8

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atababy
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184668
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Fireground Support Ch 5-8
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2012-12-02 21:07:26
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Fireground Support
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Fireground Support Ch 5-8
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  1. The interior operations that relate most directly to saving lives are                      and                     .
    The interior operations that relate most directly to saving lives are Search and Rescue
  2. The "immediate action" exception to the Two-In/Two-Out rule does not include a search to determine whether lives are in jeopardy, the exception only applies to                              
                              
    The "immediate action" exception to the Two-In/Two-Out rule does not include a search to determine whether lives are in jeopardy, the exception only applies to Situations where lives are known to be at risk
  3. While in the Hazard Zone, the search team members remain in                         contact with each other. They must also remain in contact with the RIC, but this contact may be       
     
            
    While in the Hazard Zone, the search team members remain in Visual/Voice (not radio) contact with each other. They must also remain in contact with the RIC, but this contact may be by Radio
  4. In addition to full PPE, SCBA, and a Radio, search team members should also take                                                  
    and Flashlights. 
    In addition to full PPE, SCBA, and a Radio, search team members should also take Forcible Entry Tools, Rope Bags, and Flashlights
  5. Most Thermal Imagers use one of two technologies: 
                                      or                                           
    • Most Thermal Imagers use one of two technologies:
    • Microbolometer or BST (Barium, Strontium, Titanium) 
  6. Some thermal imagers are designed primarily for locating the seat of the fire by being calibrated to respond to temps in excess of                    
    Some thermal imagers are designed primarily for locating the seat of the fire by being calibrated to respond to temps in excess of 900*F
  7. Sheltering In Place - According to NFPA 101, an                      
              is "a space that is part of the normal means of egress but that is protected from fire by an approved sprinkler system, smokeproof walls, or by the virtue of being an adjacent building". The (ADA) uses the term                          
                    . Both are equipped with Emergency Communication Systems
    Sheltering In Place - According to NFPA 101, an Area of Refuge is "a space that is part of the normal means of egress but that is protected from fire by an approved sprinkler system, smokeproof walls, or by the virtue of being an adjacent building". The (ADA) uses the term Area of Rescue Assistance. Both are equipped with Emergency Communication Systems. 
  8. A secondary search is conducted after the primary search has been done and and initial fire suppression and ventilation operations have been completed. A secondary search should be conducted               and                      and without putting F/F's at unnecessary risk.
    A secondary search is conducted after the primary search has been done and and initial fire suppression and ventilation operations have been completed. A secondary search should be conducted Slowly and Methodically and without putting F/F's at unnecessary risk.
  9. Properly done, ventilation can contribute significantly to the achievement of all 3 major goals on every incident -             
                                                     
    Properly done, ventilation can contribute significantly to the achievement of all 3 major goals on every incident - Life Safety, Incident Stabilization, Property Conservation
  10. Ventilation efforts should be in                                          , taking advantage of natural ventilation whenever possible. 
    Ventilation efforts should be in concert with existing atmospheric conditions, taking advantage of natural ventilation whenever possible. 
  11. Ventilation is a                    operation. Its purpose is to direct the movement of the products of combustion and remove them from the building to facilitate              and              
    Ventilation is a Tactical operation. Its purpose is to direct the movement of the products of combustion and remove them from the building to facilitate Rescue and Attack
  12. Ventilation must be                 - Capable of handling the volume of heat, smoke and toxic gases being produced by the fire - and it must be done with the appropriate                 
      
    .
    Ventilation must be Adequate - Capable of handling the volume of heat, smoke and toxic gases being produced by the fire - and it must be done with the Appropriate Aggressiveness
  13. A compartment fire starts with the            phase and progresses through 4 additional stages                               
                                 
    A compartment fire starts with the Ignition phase and progresses through 4 additional stages Growth, Flashover, Fully Developed and Decay
  14. The                        is that which follows the actual ignition. Early in the                       the fire is limited to the materials first ignited, and the room temp is only slightly above normal. 
    The Growth Stage is that which follows the actual ignition. Early in the Growth Stage the fire is limited to the materials first ignited, and the room temp is only slightly above normal. 
  15. The early portion of the Growth Stage is sometimes called the                      phase. At this point, temperatures in the upper portions of the compartment can exceed         *F. 
    The early portion of the Growth Stage is sometimes called the Flame-Spread phase. At this point, temperatures in the upper portions of the compartment can exceed 1,300*F
  16. Rollover - (aka-                  ) occurs when unburned combustible gases released during the ignition and early growth stages of the fire accumulate at the ceiling level. These superheated gases mix with oxygen as they spread, under pressure, away from the fire, igniting when flammable range is reached.  
    Rollover - (aka- Flameover) occurs when unburned combustible gases released during the ignition and early growth stages of the fire accumulate at the ceiling level. These superheated gases mix with oxygen as they spread, under pressure, away from the fire, igniting when flammable range is reached.  
  17. Effective ventilation on the side of the fire                 the fire attack reduces the chances of rollover. 
    Effective ventilation on the side of the fire Opposite the fire attack reduces the chances of rollover. 
  18. Following Flashover, a compartment fire continues to burn intensely. During this stage, sometimes called the "              
                  " phase, fire continues to burn. 
    Following Flashover, a compartment fire continues to burn intensely. During this stage, sometimes called the "Free-Burning" phase, fire continues to burn. 
  19. In the           Stage, flame may diminish completely if the compartment is sufficiently airtight. Gases in the compartment may reach a temperature of well over 1,000*F. 
    In the Decay Stage, flame may diminish completely if the compartment is sufficiently airtight. Gases in the compartment may reach a temperature of well over 1,000*F. 
  20.                   is the rapid, almost instantaneous combustion of flammable gases, carbon particles and tar balloons produced by materials that are burning under conditions of insufficent oxygen. 
    A Backdraft is the rapid, almost instantaneous combustion of flammable gases, carbon particles and tar balloons produced by materials that are burning under conditions of insufficent oxygen. 
  21. While                  is the chemical union of oxygen and other elements, and                      is merely rapid                 , a Backdraft is extremely rapid                 
    While Oxidation is the chemical union of oxygen and other elements, and Combustion is merely rapid Oxidation, a Backdraft is extremely rapid Oxidation
  22. While                                     is usually the best way of safely mitigating backdraft conditions, it may not always be possible. It may only be necessary to monitor the fire until it goes out due to                          
    While Vertical Ventilation is usually the best way of safely mitigating backdraft conditions, it may not always be possible. It may only be necessary to monitor the fire until it goes out due to Lack of Oxygen. 
  23. The 3 recognized ways by which heat is transferred are 
                                   and                 . From a fireground standpoint, a structure fire is most affected by                 (primary mechanism of fire spread) and                 (tendency of heat to rise) 
    The 3 recognized ways by which heat is transferred are Conduction, Convection and Radiation. From a fireground standpoint, a structure fire is most affected by Radiation (primary mechanism of fire spread) and Convection (tendency of heat to rise) 
  24. One of the most reliable indicators of the fire conditions within a burning building is the behavior of                           .
    One of the most reliable indicators of the fire conditions within a burning building is the Behavior of the Visible Smoke.
  25. Whitish-gray smoke generally indicates                         materials are burning in an atmosphere with abundant oxygen. 
    Whitish-gray smoke generally indicates Cellulose-Based materials are burning in an atmosphere with abundant oxygen. 
  26. Thick yellow smoke is produced by products containing 
               .
    Thick yellow smoke is produced by products containing Sulfur.
  27. Brown-Copper colored smoke is produced by             of 
                     (pyroxylin plastics, T-squares, drafting tools)
    Brown-Copper colored smoke is produced by            Oxides of Nitrogen (pyroxylin plastics, T-squares, drafting tools)
  28. "Older Buildings" referring to those constructed before the end of           , which occured in         , had no building codes. 
    "Older Buildings" referring to those constructed before the end of WWII, which occured in 1945, had no building codes. 
  29. Gusset Plates (aka -                  ) can be prone to sudden collapse, therefore, some jurisdictions require they be 
                        or used in conjunction with                              . Plates with 3/8"prongs are most common. 
    Gusset Plates (aka - Gang Nails) can be prone to sudden collapse, therefore, some jurisdictions require they be Corner Nailed or used in conjunction with Automatic SprinklersPlates with 3/8"prongs are most common. 
  30. The ventilation operation must be coordinated with 
                and                 because the fire often increases in intensity when ventilation is initiated.
    The ventilation operation must be coordinated with Rescue and Fire Attack because the fire often increases in intensity when ventilation is initiated.
  31. Coordinating the ventilation operation with rescue and fire attack generally involves 3 components:                               , and             
    Coordinating the ventilation operation with rescue and fire attack generally involves 3 components: Timing, Location and Method
  32. In horizontal ventilation, fire and heated gases are released through window openings or doorways. Consequently, there is a danger they will ignite the structure above the point where they escape or be drawn into windows above the ventilation opening. his is called                or                  .
    In horizontal ventilation, fire and heated gases are released through window openings or doorways. Consequently, there is a danger they will ignite the structure above the point where they escape or be drawn into windows above the ventilation opening. his is called Lapping or Autoexposure.
  33. The most important weather-related influences on ventilation are                           , and                     
    The most important weather-related influences on ventilation are Wind, Humidity and Temperature
  34.                                    is the most frequently used form of ventilation because most fires in buildings are small nuisance fires that do little damage and produce more smoke than fire. 
    Horizontal Ventilation is the most frequently used form of ventilation because most fires in buildings are small nuisance fires that do little damage and produce more smoke than fire. 
  35. Flexible Ducting - The ducting consists of a treated fabric tube (usually            in color) over a continuous coil that provides support and keeps the duct open throughout its length (can be used for PPV or NPV). Other departments use flexible ducting that is up to        inches in diameter, and is made of smooth,                 plastic. 
    Flexible Ducting - The ducting consists of a treated fabric tube (usually Yellow in color) over a continuous coil that provides support and keeps the duct open throughout its length (can be used for PPV or NPV). Other departments use flexible ducting that is up to 24 inches in diameter, and is made of smooth, Translucent plastic
  36. Being able to channel smoke or gases through a flexible duct to the outside without contaminating other areas is particularly useful shopping malls where there are many 
                                  and in hospitals, schools or office buildings. 
    Being able to channel smoke or gases through a flexible duct to the outside without contaminating other areas is particularly useful shopping malls where there are many Unrelated Occupancies and in hospitals, schools or office buildings. 
  37. When using negative pressure ventilation, it is important to remember that replacement air must be brought into the area from which                                     
    When using negative pressure ventilation, it is important to remember that replacement air must be brought into the area from which Contaminants are being Expelled. (the fan needs to be in an area where the air is not being contaminated by the smoke being vented outside) 
  38. The most common types of walls that F/F's may have to breach for horizontal ventilation are           walls,                
                     , and exterior walls. 
    The most common types of walls that F/F's may have to breach for horizontal ventilation are Stem walls, Interior Firewalls and Exterior walls
  39. Fire walls are rated assemblies designed to reduce the likelihood of horizontal fire spread by                           a building with fire-resistive separations.
    Fire walls are rated assemblies designed to reduce the likelihood of horizontal fire spread by Compartmentalizing a building with fire-resistive separations. *generally, fire walls should not be breached for ventilation purposes
  40. Exterior masonry walls usually range from      to      inches or more in thickness. These walls are formidable barriers that are so difficult and time consuming they are rarely breached for ventilation. 
    Exterior masonry walls usually range from 8 to 12 inches or more in thickness. These walls are formidable barriers that are so difficult and time consuming they are rarely breached for ventilation. 
  41. Veneer-over-frame Walls- These walls are essentially frame walls in which 2x4 or        inch wood or metal studs are covered with a layer of plywood or                                   for shear strength. One layer of brick or stone (real or imitation) is added to give the appearance of a solid wall. 
    Veneer-over-frame Walls- These walls are essentially frame walls in which 2x4 or 2x6 inch wood or metal studs are covered with a layer of Plywood or Oriented Strand Board (OSB) for shear strength. One layer of brick or stone (real or imitation) is added to give the appearance of a solid wall. 
  42. Some buildings have a veneeer of polystyrene plastic foam applied to the outside for aesthetic purposes. This foam veneer may be blocks or sheets as much as           thick. These walls can be recognized by the hollow sound they make when tapped with a tool. 
    Some buildings have a veneeer of polystyrene plastic foam applied to the outside for aesthetic purposes. This foam veneer may be blocks or sheets as much as 1 foot thick. These walls can be recognized by the hollow sound they make when tapped with a tool. 
  43. Tall masonry veneer walls can present a substantial collapse potential because of the way some of them are attached to the studs. Some veneers are attached to the studs with              
                    
    metal straps that can pull-out or fail under fire conditions.
    Tall masonry veneer walls can present a substantial collapse potential because of the way some of them are attached to the studs. Some veneers are attached to the studs with Thin Corrugated metal straps (brick ties) that can pull-out or fail under fire conditions.
  44. Some metal walls are merely              walls attached to a rigid structural steel frame. In this application, there usually are no studs in the exterior wall, only lightweight horizontal members between the heavy steel pillars. 
    Some metal walls are merely Curtain Walls attached to a rigid structural steel frame. In this application, there usually are no studs in the exterior wall, only lightweight horizontal members between the heavy steel pillars. 
  45. For horizontal ventilation purposes,                 are some of the best means of creating the necessary exterior openings. Even when the               cannot be opened, it can be broken quickly and with relative ease.
    For horizontal ventilation purposes, Windows are some of the best means of creating the necessary exterior openings. Even when the Window cannot be opened, it can be broken quickly and with relative ease.
  46. Double-casement windows may be separated by a fixed pane or simply by a vertical post called a                
    Double-casement windows may be separated by a fixed pane or simply by a vertical post called a Mullion.
  47. Projected Windows - (aka -               windows) may be hinged at the top or bottom and may swing inward or outward. 
    Projected Windows - (aka - Factory Windows) may be hinged at the top or bottom and may swing inward or outward. 
  48.                Windows - these windows have bottom hinged, inward swinging sashes. They are often just awning windows that have been installed upside down. 
    Hopper Windows - these windows have bottom hinged, inward swinging sashes. They are often just awning windows that have been installed upside down
  49. Some energy efficient windows are             or            glazed. Regardless of the number of panes, there is always a space between the panes. This space is usually filled with air, but may be filled with            or some other         gas. 
    Some energy efficient windows are Double or Triple glazed. Regardless of the number of panes, there is always a space between the panes. This space is usually filled with air, but may be filled with Argon or some other Inert gas
  50. Regardless of its design or location, a door opened for ventilation purposes should be                      or 
                                 
    Regardless of its design or location, a door opened for ventilation purposes should be Blocked Open or Removed from the Frame
  51. Penthouse (aka -                ) doors should be blocked open when being used for ventilation. 
    Penthouse (aka - Bulkhead) doors should be blocked open when being used for ventilation. 
  52. The most significant difference between telescoping doors and other types of service doors is that the telescoping doors consist of two layers of skin separated by at least       inches of airspace. The space becomes progressively bigger from the bottom to the top
    The most significant difference between telescoping doors and other types of service doors is that the telescoping doors consist of two layers of skin separated by at least 2 inches of airspace. The space becomes progressively bigger from the bottom to the top
  53. While wind intensity and direction are always factors, the Most Important factors in deciding where to make the initial ventilation opening are that the exit opening be made as close                               and that it be opposite of the point from which                                  
    While wind intensity and direction are always factors, the Most Important factors in deciding where to make the initial ventilation opening are that the exit opening be made as close to the Seat of the Fire as possible and that it be opposite of the point from which Attack Lines will Advance
  54. Under ideal conditions, an exit opening should first be made on the              side of the building, immediately followed by an interior attack from the                 side. 
    Under ideal conditions, an exit opening should first be made on the Leeward side of the building, immediately followed by an interior attack from the Windward side. 
  55. Under ideal circumstances , the wind can provide all the air circulation necessary for effective horizontal ventilation Opening the structure on the              side and ventilating on the            side often works very well. 
    Under ideal circumstances , the wind can provide all the air circulation necessary for effective horizontal ventilation Opening the structure on the Windward side and ventilating on the Leeward side often works very well. 
  56. Depending on the size and efficiency of the Blower used, winds of up to      MPH may be overcome with positive-pressure ventilation. 
    Depending on the size and efficiency of the Blower used, winds of up to 25 MPH may be overcome with positive-pressure ventilation
  57. When using windows for natural horizontal ventilation, if the seat of the fire is on the Leeward side of the building, the correct procedure for cross ventilation is to first open the 
                                         , allowing superheated gases to escapse. The next step is to then open the                                  
                  to introduce replacement air into the building. 
    When using windows for natural horizontal ventilation, if the seat of the fire is on the Leeward side of the building, the correct procedure for cross ventilation is to first open the Top windows on the Leeward side, allowing superheated gases to escape. The next step is to then open the Lower windows on the Windward side, to introduce replacement air into the building. 
  58. When Thermoplastic Windows must be opened for horizontal ventilation, a                    with a                         is most effective when entry must be made through these windows. 
    When Thermoplastic Windows must be opened for horizontal ventilation, a Rotary Saw with a Medium (40 tooth) Carbide-Tipped Blade is most effective when entry must be made through these windows. 
  59.                     (sometimes called                       ) is the phenomenon of smoke being blown out the top of the opening, only to be drawn back into the compartment at the bottom of the opening by the slight negative pressure (vacuum) created by the action of the ejector. 
     Churning (sometimes called Recirculation ) is the phenomenon of smoke being blown out the top of the opening, only to be drawn back into the compartment at the bottom of the opening by the slight negative pressure (vacuum) created by the action of the ejector. 
  60. Blowers can be extremely effective adjuncts to natural horizontal ventilation. Slightly larger than smoke ejectors, blowers are most often powered by                           , but may be powered by an                 motor or a hoseline. 
    Blowers can be extremely effective adjuncts to natural horizontal ventilation. Slightly larger than smoke ejectors, blowers are most often powered by Gasoline-driven Engines, but may be powered by an Electric motor or a hoseline
  61. Blowers are almost always set up about      feet outside the point of entry into the building so they are not subject to being damaged by the fire. 
    Blowers are almost always set up about 6 feet outside the point of entry into the building so they are not subject to being damaged by the fire. 
  62. Compared with mechanical smoke ejectors, fog streams are capable of removing         x more smoke, depending on type and size of the nozzle, the angle of the spray pattern and the location of the nozzle in relation tothe ventilation opening. 
    Compared with mechanical smoke ejectors, fog streams are capable of removing 2-4x more smoke, depending on type and size of the nozzle, the angle of the spray pattern and the location of the nozzle in relation tothe ventilation opening. 
  63. A fog or spray stream directed through a window or doorway with a       degree pattern, covering      -      % of the opening provides the best results for ventilation. The ideal nozzle position will vary, but in most cases it should be about       feet inside the room being cleared. Regardless of the size of the room, the spray pattern should never exceed        degrees. 
    A fog or spray stream directed through a window or doorway with a 60 degree pattern, covering 85-90% of the opening provides the best results for ventilation. The ideal nozzle position will vary, but in most cases it should be about 2 feet inside the room being cleared. Regardless of the size of the room, the spray pattern should never exceed 60 degrees
  64. While local protocols must be followed, it is recommended that a clear space of at least       feet be maintained in all directions from anyone using a cutting tool for vertical ventilation. The most common cutting tools used for vertical ventilation are the Rotary Saw, Chain Saw and Pick Head Axe
    While local protocols must be followed, it is recommended that a clear space of at least 10 feet be maintained in all directions from anyone using a cutting tool for vertical ventilation. The most common cutting tools used for vertical ventilation are the Rotary Saw, Chain Saw and Pick Head Axe
  65. Because of its versatility and safety, the              is the preferred cutting tool among many fireground support personnel. Saws should be started and ran on the street or ground level before being hoisted or carried aloft. 
    Because of its versatility and safety, the Chain Saw is the preferred cutting tool among many fireground support personnel. Saws should be started and ran on the street or ground level before being hoisted or carried aloft. 
  66. Many F/F's wear their axes in                strapped around their waists. Cutting a roof with an axe should be done as close to the rafters as possible to minimize the tendency of the roof surface to deflect when struck. 
    Many F/F's wear their axes in Scabbards strapped around their waists. Cutting a roof with an axe should be done as close to the rafters as possible to minimize the tendency of the roof surface to deflect when struck. 
  67. The safest way to cut with an axe is to use                          strokes, with the axe cutting to the         of the F/F's feet, not 
                      
    The safest way to cut with an axe is to use Short, Controlled Strokes, with the axe cutting to the Side of the F/F's feet, not between them.
  68. On roofs covered with wooden shakes or shingles, it is usually more efficient for F/F's to strike the roof surface with the               and pull the axe toward them in short, quick strokes. This technique scrapes off the shingles. 
    On roofs covered with wooden shakes or shingles, it is usually more efficient for F/F's to strike the roof surface with the Pick Head and pull the axe toward them in short, quick strokes. This technique scrapes off the shingles. 
  69. The pick-head axe can be used to strip the roof covering from the sheathing after the appropriate cuts have been made. Facing            and working as a team, the F/F's insert the picks of their axes into the            crosscut and pull the roof covering toward them as they back away. 
    The pick-head axe can be used to strip the roof covering from the sheathing after the appropriate cuts have been made. Facing Leeward and working as a team, the F/F's insert the picks of their axes into the Leeward crosscut and pull the roof covering toward them as they back away. 
  70. The                      is used in exactly the same way as the pike pole when stripping roofing. One advantage is it has 2 hooks instead of 1, giving the tool twice the purchase on the material being pulled. Another advantage is the D-Handle. Finally, the width of the tool head makes                            more efficient than using a pike pole. 
    The Rubbish Hook is used in exactly the same way as the pike pole when stripping roofing. One advantage is it has 2 hooks instead of 1, giving the tool twice the purchase on the material being pulled. Another advantage is the D-Handle. Finally, the width of the tool head makes Pushing a ceiling down from above more efficient than using a pike pole. 
  71. Except with                    roofs, F/F's should sound the roof with a hand tool as they advance. 
    Except with Tile/Slate roofs, F/F's should sound the roof with a hand tool as they advance. 
  72. Whenever F/F's ascend to the roof, by whatever means, a 
                                            must be provided. This can be accomplished by placing ladders on 2 sides of the building. Burning buildings should be laddered on all sides. 
    Whenever F/F's ascend to the roof, by whatever means, a Secondary means of Egress must be provided. This can be accomplished by placing ladders on 2 sides of the building. Burning buildings should be laddered on all sides. 
  73.                             are normally square or rectangular metal-covered hatches that provide an exit from an attic or cockloft onto the roof and are often accessed from the top floor or the attic by a ladder.
    Scuttle Hatches are normally square or rectangular metal-covered hatches that provide an exit from an attic or cockloft onto the roof and are often accessed from the top floor or the attic by a ladder.
  74.                      (aka -                     ) - Often enclose the tops of stairways that terminate on the roof, and usually have a metal-clad exterior door of standard size. 
    Penthouses (aka - Bulkheads) - Often enclose the tops of stairways that terminate on the roof, and usually have a metal-clad exterior door of standard size. 
  75.                          - are square or rectangular structures that penetrate the roofs of single-story or multi-story buildings to provide additional natural light and/or ventilation. 
    Monitor Vents - are square or rectangular structures that penetrate the roofs of single-story or multi-story buildings to provide additional natural light and/or ventilation. 
  76.                     Windows - some residential and small office buildings have a horizontal row of windows installed on a vertical wall between two offset roof sections. 
    • Clerestory Windows - some residential and small office buildings have a horizontal row of windows installed on a vertical wall between two offset roof sections. 
    • *Dad's house used to have these
  77. The most common pitch on residential roofs is a              
    A roof designed to withstand heavy snow might have a 
                   pitch. 
    • The most common pitch on residential roofs is a 5 in 12
    • A roof designed to withstand heavy snow might have a
    • 12 in 12 pitch. 
  78. In                                  construction, the ceiling is often omitted and the rafters become part of the interior de'cor. 
    In Post and Beam construction, the ceiling is often omitted and the rafters become part of the interior de'cor. 
  79. The            roof is perhaps the most common style of roof construction. The ridge and rafters are often 2x6 when stick built (2x4 if using prefab trusses). The rafters are commonly spaced at       to       inches on center. 
    The Gable roof is perhaps the most common style of roof construction. The ridge and rafters are often 2x6 when stick built (2x4 if using prefab trusses). The rafters are commonly spaced at 16 to 24 inches on center
  80. Bridge-Truss roofs - Bridge Trusses are heavy duty trusses with sloping ends. Truss spacing may be as much as        to 
         feet on center. The strongest area of bridge-trussed roofs are at the perimeter of the of the building where the bottom chord rests. Trusses are in constant                 and                
    Bridge-Truss roofs - Bridge Trusses are heavy duty trusses with sloping ends. Truss spacing may be as much as 16 to 20 feet on center. The strongest area of bridge-trussed roofs are at the perimeter of the of the building where the bottom chord rests. Trusses are in constant Tension and Compression
  81. The                           roof has a flat deck in the middle, with 4 sharply sloped sides. The true                 forms a slight hipped peak or ridge, and still has 4 sharply sloped sides. 
    The Modern Mansard roof has a flat deck in the middle, with 4 sharply sloped sides. The true Mansard forms a slight hipped peak or ridge, and still has 4 sharply sloped sides. 
  82. When venting pitched roofs, to help identify where the rafters are located, the first cut should be                 to the ridge. The ventilation opening should be at least           feet. 
    When venting pitched roofs, to help identify where the rafters are located, the first cut should be Parallel to the ridge. The ventilation opening should be at least 4 x 4 feet
  83. To provide more secure footing and to extend reach, an 
              or a                may be embedded in the roof and the tool head used as a foothold. 
    To provide more secure footing and to extend reach, an Axe or a Halligan may be embedded in the roof and the tool head used as a foothold. 
  84. A flat roof ordinarily has a slight slope (      in       pitch or less). There is often a space between a flat roof and the ceiling of the top floor below. This space is referred to as an Attic, Cockloft, Crawl Space or an Interstitial Space. 
    A flat roof ordinarily has a slight slope ( 2 in 12 pitch or less). There is often a space between a flat roof and the ceiling of the top floor below. This space is referred to as an Attic, Cockloft, Crawl Space or an Interstitial Space. 
  85. In the Inverted Flat Roof, the main roof joists are set at the level of the                 and a framework of 2x4's are constructed to reach the           . From the outside the inverted roof looks like any other flat roof, but the surface is "springy" or "spongy". 
    In the Inverted Flat Roof, the main roof joists are set at the level of the Ceiling and a framework of 2x4's are constructed to reach the Roof level. From the outside the inverted roof looks like any other flat roof, but the surface is "springy" or "spongy". 
  86. Concrete roofs are constructed in a variety of ways. One of the most common is lightweight concrete poured over a metal decking. Another common concrete roof consists of precast                          
    Concrete roofs are constructed in a variety of ways. One of the most common is lightweight concrete poured over a metal decking. Another common concrete roof consists of precast Double-T Panels 
  87. Poured Gypsum Roofs consist of bar joists or I-beams with brackets                       to the joists. Gypsum board is placed upon the brackets and is covered with a layer of gypsum cement up to       inches thick, then wire mesh is added. 
    Poured Gypsum Roofs consist of bar joists or I-beams with brackets Tack Welded to the joists. Gypsum board is placed upon the brackets and is covered with a layer of gypsum cement up to 2 1/2 inches thick, then wire mesh is added. 
  88. Typically, arches are spaced at      to      foot centers. 
    Typically, arches are spaced at 16 to 20 foot centers. 
  89. The 2 most common types of arched roof are the:                and the                    . The                 roof is made up of a geometric, egg-crate or modified diamond pattern framework on which plank sheathing is laid. 
    The 2 most common types of arched roof are the: Bowstring and the Lamella . The Lamella roof is made up of a geometric, egg-crate or modified diamond pattern framework on which plank sheathing is laid. 
  90. The                                uses a wooden bottom chord or a steel tie rod for lateral support with turnbuckles to maintain proper tension. The perimeter of the building and the arch members are the strongest points.
    The Bowstring Arch Roof uses a wooden bottom chord or a steel tie rod for lateral support with turnbuckles to maintain proper tension. The perimeter of the building and the arch members are the strongest points.
  91. The single biggest hazard of arched roofs is                          
                       . Because of this potential and the rounded surface, it is recommended that personnel work only from aerial devices when ventilating arched roofs. 
    The single biggest hazard of arched roofs is Danger of sudden and total collapse. Because of this potential and the rounded surface, it is recommended that personnel work only from aerial devices when ventilating arched roofs. 
  92. The 3 major types of Lightweight roof construction are:
                                 , Trussed roofs and                             
    The 3 major types of Lightweight roof construction are: Panelized roofs, Trussed roofs and Wooden I-Beams
  93. The most common types of roof trusses are                      trusses and                         trusses. *All trusses, regardless of configuration or application, are designed as a series of triangles - the strongest geometric shape known. 
    The most common types of roof trusses are Parallel Chord trusses and Pitched Roof trusses. *All trusses, regardless of configuration or application, are designed as a series of triangles - the strongest geometric shape known. 
  94. The bridging effect of parallel chord trusses causes the top chord to always be in                      and the bottom chord to always be in                . The area where these trusses intersect with the outside bearing wall is the strongest point.
    The bridging effect of parallel chord trusses causes the top chord to always be in Compression and the bottom chord to always be in Tension. The area where these trusses intersect with the outside bearing wall is the strongest point.
  95. Wooden/Metal Trusses - Web members are usually made of 1" cold-rolled steel tubing with the ends pressed flat into a semicircular shape. Normal spacing on these trusses is      feet on center. 
    Wooden/Metal Trusses - Web members are usually made of 1" cold-rolled steel tubing with the ends pressed flat into a semicircular shape. Normal spacing on these trusses is 2 feet on center
  96. Metal trusses - Also known as -                      , these extremely strong assemblies often consist of top and bottom chords that are each made of two angle irons set in opposing directions. These joists may span as much as        feet. 
    Metal trusses - Also known as - Bar Joists, these extremely strong assemblies often consist of top and bottom chords that are each made of two angle irons set in opposing directions. These joists may span as much as 144 feet
  97. Pitched roof trusses - Even without the support of interior walls, spans of up to       feet are possible using 2x4 components. The most common spacing between these trusses is       to       feet on center, and 1/2" plywood or OSB is used for sheathing. 
    Pitched roof trusses - Even without the support of interior walls, spans of up to 55 feet are possible using 2x4 components. The most common spacing between these trusses is 2 to 4 feet on center, and 1/2" plywood or OSB is used for sheathing. 
  98. Wooden I-Beams - The top and bottom chords may be made of 2x3 lumber, 2x4 lumber or a wooden laminate called 
                  . Common spacing for this type of beam is       feet on center, and the area where the beams rest on the outside walls is the strongest point. 
    Wooden I-Beams - The top and bottom chords may be made of 2x3 lumber, 2x4 lumber or a wooden laminate called "Micro-Lam". Common spacing for this type of beam is 2 feet on center, and the area where the beams rest on the outside walls is the strongest point. 
  99. Roof coverings are the weather resistant materials applied over the roof decking or sheathing. They usually consist of one or more layers of Underlayment (aka-                   ) as a vapor barrier and/or insulation over which a weather resistant covering is laid. 
    Roof coverings are the weather resistant materials applied over the roof decking or sheathing. They usually consist of one or more layers of Underlayment (aka- Substrate ) as a vapor barrier and/or insulation over which a weather resistant covering is laid. 
  100.           and              shingles are the most common because of their appearance and inherent durability. Shingles are sawn from large rectangular blocks of wood, so their shape and thickness are uniform. 
    Cedar and Redwood shingles are the most common because of their appearance and inherent durability. Shingles are sawn from large rectangular blocks of wood, so their shape and thickness are uniform. 
  101. In composition roofing, the most common forms are shingles , (in rectangular strips) and rolls of various widths, the the most common is the      " width. 
    In composition roofing, the most common forms are shingles , (in rectangular strips) and rolls of various widths, the the most common is the 36" width
  102. Tar and gravel roof coverings (also known as                 roofs) are very common of flat, or nearly flat roofs. 
    Tar and gravel roof coverings (also known as Built-up roofs) are very common of flat, or nearly flat roofs. 
  103. Terra-cotta tile ( aka                 tile) roofs are common in some areas. Laying over a single layer of tar paper or wooden sheathing are the tiles that hook over 1x2" battons (sometimes called                                ) nailed directly to the sheathing. 
    Terra-cotta tile ( aka Spanish tile) roofs are common in some areas. Laying over a single layer of tar paper or wooden sheathing are the tiles that hook over 1x2" battons (sometimes called Furring Strips) nailed directly to the sheathing. 
  104. When walking on tile/slate roofs, F/F's should step only on the            half of the tiles. In addition, tile/slate roofs carry more weight per unit of surface area than any other roof style and therefore may be susceptible to                           .
    When walking on tile/slate roofs, F/F's should step only on the Lower half of the tiles. In addition, tile/slate roofs carry more weight per unit of surface area than any other roof style and therefore may be susceptible to Early Roof Collapse.
  105. A light gauge metal/fiberglass roof covering consists of aluminum, fiberglass, or       to       gauge steel panels over a wooden or metal substructure. 
    A light gauge metal/fiberglass roof covering consists of aluminum, fiberglass, or 18 to 20 gauge steel panels over a wooden or metal substructure. 
  106. Most roof assemblies employ a parallel rafter system with rafters spaced from       to       inches on center, spanning the shortest distance between load bearing walls. F/F's should never walk diagonally across a roof
    Most roof assemblies employ a parallel rafter system with rafters spaced from 12 to 24 inches on center, spanning the shortest distance between load bearing walls. F/F's should never walk diagonally across a roof
  107. If sounding does not reveal the location and direction of the rafters, a diagonal cut through the roof covering can be made with a chain/rotary saw at an angle of       * to any exterior wall. The blade will usually encounter a rafter before the cut is       feet long. 
    If sounding does not reveal the location and direction of the rafters, a diagonal cut through the roof covering can be made with a chain/rotary saw at an angle of 45* to any exterior wall. The blade will usually encounter a rafter before the cut is 3 feet long
  108. When an exit opening is cut, it should be cut large enough to do the job. One 8x8 opening is is equal in area to                 
    When an exit opening is cut, it should be cut large enough to do the job. One 8x8 opening is is equal in area to 4-4x4 openings
  109. Cutting louver vents is often the                 and most              way of opening a roof. The most common method for making these cuts, the longest cuts are made parallel to the rafters. 
    Cutting louver vents is often the Fastest and Most Efficient way of opening a roof. In the most common method for making these cuts, the longest cuts are made parallel to the rafters. 
  110. Louver vents - Center-rafter cut -  this method is sometimes referred to as "cutting with the rafters". With a rafter spacing of 2 feet on center, the hole will be approximately       feet wide and at least        feet long. 
    Louver vents - Center-rafter cut -  this method is sometimes referred to as "cutting with the rafters". With a rafter spacing of 2 feet on center, the hole will be approximately 4 feet wide and at least 4 feet long
  111. Louver vents - Dicing - this method is sometimes referred to as "rolling the rafters". This method involves making the two longest cuts                      to the rafters, while subsequent cuts are made                 to the rafters. 
    Louver vents - Dicing - this method is sometimes referred to as "rolling the rafters". This method involves making the two longest cuts Perpendicular to the rafters, while subsequent cuts are made Parallel to the rafters. 
  112. Primarily a defensive maneuver,                  ventilation, sometimes called              ventilation is accomplished by making an opening in the roof, approximately       feet wide across the entire width of the building. 
    Primarily a defensive maneuver, Trench ventilation, sometimes called Strip ventilation is accomplished by making an opening in the roof, approximately 4 feet wide across the entire width of the building. 

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