ISDS Midterm 2

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  1. business intelligene:
    using info systems to get and analyze info from internal and external sources to make better business decisions
  2. what does integrated data help to do?
    keep track of and fine-tune business processes
  3. What kind of threats and opportunities can business intelligence help reacting to?
    • unstable markets
    • global threats
    • fierce competition
    • short product lifecycles
    • stringent regluations
    • wider choices for consumers
  4. continuous planning:
    organizations always monitor and analyze business processes to make adjustments; involves decision makers from all levels
  5. uses of databases for business intelligence:
    • identify customers for personalized communications
    • database tech fuels electronic commerce on the web
  6. database management system:
    software to create, store, organize, and retrieve data from one or more databases
  7. What is query used for?
    retrieve info from a database
  8. Entity:
    something you collect data about
  9. Table: 
    contains entitites; consists of rows and columns
  10. Row (record):
    a record in a table; one entity per row
  11. Column (attribute):
    one cell in a row; each attribute contains a piece of info about the entity
  12. Database costs and risks–
    • requires new specialized personnel
    • installation and management cost and complexity
    • conversion cost
    • need for explicit backup and recovery
    • organizational conflicts
  13. Database advantages –
    • program-data independence
    • less chance of duplicates
    • better consistency, sharing, security, quality, and accesability
    • better productivity in app development
    • less maintenance
  14. Data model:
    map or diagram that represents entities and their relationships
  15. Data type:
    each attribute has a specified data type
  16. Normalization:
    a process to make sure the database will operate efficiently and eliminate duplicates
  17. Data dictionary:
    a document explaining information for each attribute
  18. what do business rules do?
    prevent illegal or illogical entries from entering the database
  19. what are operational systems used for?
    used to interact with customers and run a business in realtime
  20. Form:
    user interface to add data to database
  21. Report:
    compilation of data from database, organized and produced in printed from
  22. report generator:
    software to help build interactive reports quickly
  23. query:
    a command for retrieveing specified info
  24. structured query language:
    most common language for querying
  25. query by example:
    a simpler query interface using graphical drag-and-drop features
  26. Online transaction process–
    • instant automated response to requests
    • handles multiple transactions at the same time
    • fixed # of inputs per transaction
    • gets user info, process order, and generate receipt
  27. informational systems:
    systems made to support decision making from stable historical data
  28. What does real time analytical processing do to performance of transaction processing?
    diminishes perfomance
  29. Why are operational systems useful for business intelligence?
    they are useful inputs for business intelligence applications
  30. Master Data:
    data deemed most important to business operation
  31. What does Master Data have information on?
    customers, suppliers, inventory, employees, etc.
  32. Why is Master Data important?
    important to have a single version of the truth
  33. How does Master Data work?
    business intelligence bases analysis on single version of the truth by accessing multiple databases or a database warehouse
  34. Data warehouse:
    integrates multiple databases and other sources of info into one place for easy access and processing
  35. Data Marts:
    data warehouse that has a limited scope; like a mini data warehouse
  36. 3 types of tools for business intelligence:
    • info and knowledge discovery
    • business analysis
    • info visualization
  37. Info and knowledge discovery:
    search for hidden relationships; hypotheis tested against data
  38. Online Analytical Processing OLAP
    complex multidimensional analysis of data beyond simple queries
  39. OLAP Concept: Measures and dimensions
    • measure: value that can be counted
    • dimension: grouping of data
  40. Dimensions are usually organized in a ______.
  41. drill-down:
    general to specific
  42. roll-up:
    specific to general
  43. OLAP Concept: Cubes
    organizing data via multiple dimensions
  44. OLAP Concept: Slicing and dicing
    analyzing data on subsets of the dimension
  45. OLAP Concept: Data mining
    used to discover hidden predictive relationships in data
  46. OLAP Concept: Association discovery
    used to find associations or correlations amond sets of items
  47. OLAP Concept: Clustering and classification
    • grouping related records based on similar values for attributes
    • Clustering has the groups known already
  48. OLAP Concept: text and web mining
    extracting info from text documents or from web documents
  49. OLAP Concept: web useage mining
    used to determind patterns in customers' useage data
  50. Clicksteam:
    record path through site
  51. Stickiness:
    ability to attract and keep customers
  52. Business analytics
    predict future outcome
  53. Decision support system:
    support human unstructured decision
  54. Intelligent system:
    mimic human intelligence; AI
  55. Expert system:
    uses reasoning and provides advice
  56. neural networks:
    training to establish common patterns
  57. intelligent agent systems:
    program working in the background to provide service when a specific event occurs
  58. user agent:
    perfom task for user
  59. buyer agent:
    search for best price
  60. monitoring and sensing agents:
    keep track of info and notifies users when it changes
  61. data mining agent:
    always browse data warehouses to detect changes
  62. Web crawlers:
    continuously browse the web
  63. destructive agents:
    farms e-mail addresses to deposit spyware
  64. Knowledge management systems:
    collection of tech-based systems to generate value from knowledge systems
  65. explicit knowledge assets vs. tacit knowledge assets
    can be documented vs. located in one's mind
  66. what can social network analysis help with?
    can help to analyze collaborative patterns
  67. Information visualization:
    display of complex data relationships usin graphical methods
  68. hard data:
    facts and numbers generated by organizational databases and other systems
  69. soft data:
    nonanalytical info, web-based portals
  70. what do dashboards do?
    use various graphical elements to highlight important information
  71. How do visual analytics do?
    combine various analysis techiniques and interactive visualization
  72. Geographic information system:
    system for creating, storing, analyzing, and managing geographically referenced info
  73. Ad Hoc queries:
    answer unplanned info requests to support a nonroutine decision
  74. Core business processes:
    not independent of each other; cross boundaries to business functions
  75. Traditional business fucntions–
    • marketing and sales
    • supply chain management
    • accounting and finanace
    • human resources
  76. Order to cash process:
    • create customer record
    • check credit
    • creat order
    • allocate stock
    • pick, pack, and ship
    • prepare and send invoice
    • collect payment
  77. Procure to pay process:
    • negotiate price and terms
    • issue purchase order
    • receive goods
    • receive invoice
    • settle payment
  78. make to stock process
    • procure inputs
    • schedule production
    • production
    • quality control
    • stock product
  79. make to order process:
    • process sales order
    • design/engineer product
    • procure inputs
    • schedule production
    • production
    • quality control
    • ship product
  80. supply chain:
    products move from source and move downwards through business processes
  81. value chain:
    set of business activities that add value to the end product
  82. core activities:
    functional areas that process inputs and produce output
  83. support activities:
    enable core activities to happen
  84. Inbound logistics:
    receiving and stocking raw materials, parts, and products
  85. operations and manufacturing:
    order and processing and/or manufacturing of end product
  86. outbound logistics:
    distribution of end products
  87. marketing and sales:
    presale marketing activities
  88. customer service:
    post-sale activities
  89. administrative support: 
    support of day-to-day activities
  90. infrastructure support:
    implement hardware and software needed
  91. human resources support:
    employee management
  92. technology development support:
    desing and development of applications to support the promaray activities
  93. Procurement:
    purchasing goods and services
  94. Value system:
    coordination of organizational value chains
  95. Upstream:
    info received from another company
  96. Downstream:
    info produced by a company and sent to another organization
  97. Stand-alone applications:
    don't communicate with other systems, used in departments but not the rest of the firm
  98. Proprietary system:
    has integration problems, comes from vendors and isn't designed to share with other vendor systems
  99. Legacy system:
    infrastructure specific, inefficient, 
  100. Enterprise system approach:
    integrate suite of business apps for virtually every department, process, and industry
  101. Internally focused system:
    supports fuctional areas, business processes, and decision making in an organization
  102. Externally focused system:
    coordinate business activities with customers, suppliers, business partners, and others who operate outside the organizaion
  103. Advantages of integrated enterprise system-
    • central point of access
    • Enterprise resource planning vendors offer different modules
    • components can be selectively implemented
  104. Packaged software:
    cheap, standard software from 3rd party vendors that is used by many organizations
  105. Custom software:
    expensive, specialized software made exclusively for a specific organization
  106. What does the Vanilla version contain?
    contains features and modules that an enterprise systems comes with stock
  107. what does Customization contain?
    additional software to changes to vanilla version, but needs to be updated with newer vanilla versions
  108. What do Best practices-based software do?
    find processes that need to change and makes the future updates smoother in adapting to changes
  109. Business Process Management:
    systematic and structured way to improve business processes
  110. Business Process Management steps:
    • 1) develop a version for the organization
    • 2) find critical process that need to be changed
    • 3) understand and measure current processes as a base line
    • 4) find ways IS can be used for improvement
    • 5) design and implement prototype of new processes
  111. Conditions for a Sucessful Business Process Management-
    • support from senior management
    • shared version by everyone
    • realistic expectations
    • participants can make changes
    • right people are participating
    • good management pratices
    • enough money
  112. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP):
    apps that integrate business activities across departments and keep everyone up to date
  113. Factors when choosing ERP systems-
    • controlability, detail, and consistency
    • selection of modules
    • core and extended components
  114. Core component's fucntion:
    support primary internal activities
  115. Extended component's fucntion:
    support primary external activities
  116. Financial management:
    accounting, financial reporting, corporate management, and governance
  117. Operations management:
    make business processes easier and better for inbound/outbound logistics, product development, manufacturing, sales, and service
  118. Human Resource management:
    employee recruiting, assignment tracking, performance reviews, payroll, regulatory requirements
  119. How to install ERP system:
    • configure the ERP to reflect business processes
    • organization decides how to configure many databases tables
    • organization hires business analysts or consultants to help implement it
  120. ERP system limitations:
    • can't communicate across organizational boundaries
    • usually not good at managing value system activities
  121. Formula for Enterprise System Success:
    • 1) get executive sponsor
    • 2) get outside help
    • 3) train users
    • 4) take multidisciplinary approach to implementation
    • 5) start evolving the ERP structure
  122. Supply Chain:
    collection of companies and processes moving a product
  123. upstream movement:
    flow from sources of raw materials and components 
  124. downstream movement:
    flow to customers
  125. problems with supply chain:
    • distorted info
    • excessive inventories
    • inaccurate cpacity plans
    • missed product schedules
  126. Just-in-time production:
    parts and materials arrive as they are needed; less storage space and inventory
  127. Vendor-managed inventory:
    suppliers manage the manufacturer's (or retailers) inventory levels based on pre-established service levels
  128. bullwhip effect:
    ripple effect where forecast errors and safety stocks multiply when moving up the supply chain
  129. coroporate social responsibility:
    transparancy and accountability within the supply chain help save costs and create a good image
  130. what does supply chain management do?
    improves the coordination of suppliers, product or service production, and distributin
  131. What are ERP systems primarily used for?
    optimize business processes 
  132. supply chain planning:
    developement of resource plans to support production
  133. demand planning and forecasting:
    examination of historic data
  134. distribution planning:
    deliver product to customer, deliver invoice, receive payment
  135. production scheduling:
    coordinate activities to creat product
  136. inventory and safety stock planning:
    develop inventory estimates
  137. 3 types of supply chain execution:
    • product flow (supplier to customer)
    • info flow (no paper docs, accessable all the time)
    • financial flow (automatic flow of payments)
  138. Supply chain visibility:
    ability to track products as they move through the supply chain AND foresee external events
  139. supply chain analytics:
    use of key performance dictators to monitor performance of supply chain
  140. efficiency:
    cost minimization
  141. effectiveness:
    customer service maximization
  142. SCM key trends:
    • supplier portal
    • customer portal
    • B2B market places
  143. SCM key enabling tech:
    • XML (extensible markup language)
    • RFID (radio frequency identification)
  144. what is XML and how is it useful?
    a customizeable data presentation standard with specific rules on how it should be used; useful for sharing data across applications
  145. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID):
    using electromagnetic tech to transmit enery between tag and reader (like barcode scanner but from a long distance)
  146. Customer relationship management (CRM):
    comapanies are always looking for more customers, so they need to be able to monitor what works for customer satisfaction
  147. Benefits to a CRM:
    • allows non-stop operation
    • individualized service
    • better performance
    • better integration
    • better product development
    • better planning
    • faster problem solving
    • faster processes
  148. Policy and business process changes need to reflect what?
    customer focused culture
  149. Customer service changes happen when?
    change according to customer standards and needs
  150. Employee training changes:
    train employees to value customers
  151. data collection:
    get info on customers
  152. Analytical CRM can be used to do what?
    easily customize marketing from segment level to individual level
  153. Productivity Paradox: measurement problems
    too measured by efficiency and not effectiveness
  154. Productivity Paradox: time lags
    large delay between initial investment and improvement 
  155. Productivity Paradox: redistribution
    new inventions can redistribute pieces of the pie; industry doesn't benefit, but some firms can become more competitive
  156. Productivity Paradox: mismanagement
    IS investmens could only be a temporary fix and just mask or increase the slack/inefficiency
  157. Business case argument: faith
    beliefs about policies and strategies, objectiveness should be described
  158. Business case argument: fear
    argue that the company needs it or else something bad will happen
  159. Business case argument: fact
    provide cost-benefit analysis, facts, and data
  160. Cost-benefit analysis steps:
    • identify costs
    • identify benefits
    • perform cost-benefit analysis
    • comapare competing investments
  161. tips to presenting a business case:
    • know your audience
    • convert your benefits to money terms
    • devise alternate measures of outcomes
    • measure what's important to management
  162. Systems development process:
    systems analysis and design and then a systems analyst performs systems analysis
  163. problems decomposition:
    problems broken up into smaller, simpler pieces
  164. systems analyst role:
    manage project and help defind requirements
  165. Systems develpment life cycle:
    • 1) system planning and selection
    • 2) systems analysis
    • 3) system design
    • 4) system implementation
    • 5) system maintenance
  166. parallel system conversion:
    new one starts and old one stops later on
  167. direct system conversion:
    old system stops AND THEN new one starts
  168. phased system conversion:
    parts of new one are implemented little by little.
  169. pilot system conversion:
    entire system used in one location
  170. information system documentation:
    written by programmers; details of the inner workings of the system
  171. user related documentation:
    written by pro tech writers; reference and training guides
  172. corrective maintenance:
    make changes to repair flaws in design 
  173. adaptive maintenance:
    make changes to evolve the software
  174. perfective maintenance:
    make enhancements to improve processing and useability 
  175. preventive maintenance:
    make changes to reduce chance of failure
  176. patch management systems:
    uses the internet to check the vendor's website for updates (AutoUpdate shit)
  177. prototyping:
    quick build used for trial-and-error testing
  178. processing logic:
    the way data is transformed
  179. requirement collection:
    getting info and researching how an info system works
  180. Reasons why you might not be able to build systems in-house:
    • 1) staff is too small
    • 2) staff has limited skills
    • 3) staff has no time to work on it
    • 4) performance problems with staff
  181. external aquisition:
    puchase existing system form outside vendors
  182. Steps in External Acquisition:
    • 1) system planning and selection
    • 2) system analysis
    • 3) development of a request proposal
    • 4) proposal evaluation
    • 5) vendor selection
  183. Request for proposal:
    documentation detailing system requirements sent to prospective vendors
  184. Proposal evaluation:
    an assesment of proposals reveived from vendors
  185. vendor selection:
    usually more than one vendor is good, so they are ranked and the best is chosen
  186. software licensing:
    premissions and rights that are imposed on apps
  187. shrink-wrap licenses:
    off the shelf software
  188. click-wrap licenses:
    downloaded software
  189. enterprise licenses:
    volume licenses
  190. software asset management:
    helps organizations to better manage software infrastructure to avoid legal problems
  191. application service providers
    provide software as a service
  192. basic outsource relationship:
    cash and carry
  193. preferred outsource relationship:
    set preferential pricing
  194. strategic outsource relationship:
    share risk/reward
  195. alpha testing:
    testing to see if it meets design requirements
  196. developmental testing:
    testing system as a whole to see if it performs adequately
  197. systems benchmarking:
    using standardized performance tests to facilitate comparison between systems
  198. beta testing:
    testing capabilities of the system in the user environment with actual data
Card Set:
ISDS Midterm 2

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