Psychology ch. 12 and 15

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Freemanr
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Psychology ch. 12 and 15
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2010-05-09 17:12:39
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  1. Social Psychology
    • The scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behvaior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
  2. Social Influence
    The process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual.
  3. Conformity
    Changing one's own behavior to match that of other peoples
  4. Groupthink
    Kind of thinking that occurs when people place mroe importance on maintining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned
  5. Consumer Psychology
    Branch of psychology that studies the habits of consumers in the marketplace, including compliance
  6. Compliance
    Changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
  7. Foot-in-the-door technique
    Way to gain compliance - asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compiance, asking for a bigger commitment
  8. Door-in-the-face technique
    Way to gain compliance - asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment
  9. Norm of reciprocity
    Assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return.
  10. Lowball technique
    Way to gain compliance - getting a commitment form a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
  11. That's-not-all technique
    Way to get compliance - a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision
  12. Obedience
    Changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure
  13. Milgram study
    "teacher" administered what they thought were real shocks to a "learner"
  14. Social facilitation
    The tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task
  15. Social loafing
    The tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task
  16. Attitude
    A tendnency to respond positively or negatively toward a certin person, object, idea, or situation
  17. Three components of an attitude
    Affective (emotional) component, behavioral component, and cognitive component
  18. Formation of attitudes
    • Direct contant with the person, situation, object, or idea
    • Direct instruction from parents or others
    • Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude
    • Watching the actions and reactions of others to ideas, people, objects, and situations
  19. Persuasion
    The proces by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation
  20. Key elements of persuasion
    Source of the message, the message itself, and the target audience
  21. Elaboration likelihood model
    Model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it, and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictuable than those who do not.
  22. Central-route processing
    Type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself
  23. Peripheral-route processing
    Type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the appearance of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other noncontent factors
  24. Cognitive dissonance
    Sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not coreespond to that person's impression formation the forming of the first knowledge that person has concerning another person
  25. Social cognition
    the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them
  26. Impression formation
    Forming of the first knwoledge a person has about another person
  27. Primacy effect
    the very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of veidence to the contrary
  28. Social categorization
    the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past
  29. Stereotype
    A set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a perticular social category
  30. Implicit personality theory
    Sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personally traits, and actions are related to each other
  31. Schemas
    Mental patterns that represent what a person believes about certain types of people. schemas can become stereotypes
  32. Attribution
    The process of explaining one's own behavior and the behavior of others
  33. Attribution theory
    The theory of how people make attributions
  34. Situational cause
    Cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation
  35. Dispositional cause
    Cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character
  36. Fundamental attribution error (actor-observer bias)
    The tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimatin situational factors
  37. Prejudice
    Negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
  38. Discrimination
    Treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
  39. In-groups
    Social grous with whome a person identifies: "us"
  40. Out-groups
    social groups with whome a person does not identify: "they"
  41. Realistic conflict theory
    Conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination
  42. Scapegoating
    Tendency to direct predjudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence
  43. Social cognitive theory
    Views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other socail influences
  44. Social identity theory
    Theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by wocial categorization, social identity, and social comparison
  45. Social identity
    The part of the self-concept including one's view of self as a member of a particular social category
  46. Social comparison
    The comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one's self-esteem
  47. Stereotype vulnerability
    The effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
  48. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    The tendency of one's expectations to affect one's behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likey to occur
  49. Equal status contact
    Contact between groups in which the groups have equal status, with neither groups having poer over the other
  50. "Jigsaw classroom"
    Educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the separate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution
  51. Interpersonal attraction
    Liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person
  52. Proximity
    Physical or geographical nearness
  53. People like people who are......or .......
    Similar to themselves or different from themselves (complementary)
  54. Reciprocity of liking
    Tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
  55. Love
    A strong affection for another person due to kinship, personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interestes
  56. Three components of love according to sternberg
    Intimacy, passion, and commitment
  57. Romantic love
    Type of love consisting of intimacy and passion
  58. Companionate love
    type of love cinsisting of intimacy and commitment
  59. Aggression
    Behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person
  60. Biological influences on aggression
    genetics, amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin leves
  61. Social role
    The pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position
  62. Prosocial behavior
    Socially desirable behavior that benefits others
  63. Altruism
    Prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
  64. Bystander effect
    Referring to the effect that presence of the other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases
  65. Diffusion of responsibility
    Occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other poeple who are seen to share the responsibility
  66. Five steps in making a decision to help
    • Noticing
    • Defining an emergency
    • Taking responsiblitiy
    • Planning a course of action
    • Taking action
  67. People who tend to join cults...
    • under stress, unhappy, unassertive, gullible, dependent, want to belong, idealistic.
    • Young people are likelier to join cults than older people
  68. Cults use.... to keep new recuits from questioning and critical thinking
    • Love-bombing, isolation, rituals and activities
  69. Therapy
    Treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function mroe effectively
  70. Psychotherapy
    Therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychologicval professional
  71. Insight therapies
    Psychotherapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings
  72. Action therapy
    Psychotherapy in wich the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
  73. Biomedical therapy
    therapty for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical meothds to relieve symptoms
  74. Philippe Pinel
    Demanded fair treatment for the mentally ill
  75. Person-centered therapy
    A nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens
  76. Four elements of person centered therapy
    • Reflection- therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements
    • Unconditional positive regard- Referring to the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapsit for the client in person-centered therpay
    • Empathy- The ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client
    • Authenticity- The genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client
  77. Gestalt therapy
    Form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing
  78. Behavior therapies
    Action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
  79. Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis
    The use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
  80. Systematic desensitization
    Behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears
  81. Counterconditioning
    Replacing an old conditioned response with a new one by changing the unconditioned stimulus
  82. Aversion therapy
    Form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior
  83. Flooding
    Technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response
  84. Modeling
    Learning through the observation and imitation of others
  85. Participant modeling
    Technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-steph, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model
  86. Reinforcement
    The strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
  87. Token economy
    The use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges
  88. Contingency contract
    A formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated
  89. Extinction
    • the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the
    • frequency of a behavior.
  90. Time out
    • an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a
    • quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities.
  91. Cognitive therapy
    Therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize disortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts
  92. Arbitrary inference
    distortion of thinking in which a person draws on conclusion that is not based on any evidence
  93. Selective thinking
    Distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects

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