Anatomy II test 1

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Anatomy II test 1
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Anatomy II test 1 Hematology
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  1. the study of the circulatory system, including the blood, lymph, heart, arteries, veins, and lymph vessels
    Angiology  
  2. the study of blood
    Hematology
  3. -  transport of O2, CO2, food, wastes, hormones, etc.

    -  temperature regulation.

    -  control of pH (the hydrogen ion, H+, concentration).

    -  control of water balance.

    -  defense of against infection (phagocytosis) and immunity.

    -  repair & regeneration processes (healing process).
    Functions of the blood
  4. -  Color is red

    -  Temperature is 38° C or 100.3° F

    -  Specific Gravity is 1.041 to 1.067 (Water's is 1.000)

    -  Viscosity (Resistance to flow) is 4½ to 5½ times that of water

    -  pH (hydrogen ion concentration) is 7.3 to 7.4 (slightly basic or alkaline)

    -  Blood volume is 5 to 6 quarts or (1/20 to 1/13 of total body weight) for average adult.
    Characteristics of the blood
  5. - Blood Cells = Corpuscles = Formed Elements

    - Red Blood Cells, RBC's, Erythrocytes

    - White Blood Cells, WBC's, Leukocytes

    - Platelets, Thrombocytes
    Parts of Blood
  6.  45 %
  7. Plasma (liquid portion of the blood with dissolved components)
    Parts of Blood

    55 %
  8. Biconcave shape (more or less round and flat with an indention on each side)

    7.7 microns in diameter

    4,000,000 to 6,000,000 per mm3 (cubic millimeter)
    Erythrocytes

    Characteristics of Red Blood Cells
  9. Function is to  Carry O2 and CO2 (Oxygen and Carbon dioxide)
    Erythrocytes
  10. Contain Hemoglobin (Protein containing Iron = Fe) 
    Erythrocytes
  11. Hemoglobin breaks down as the RBC's decompose forming Biliverdin (green pigment) then Bilirubin (yellow pigment) forms. 
    Erythrocytes
  12. Liver is responsible for removing these bile pigments from the circulatory system.  
    If it does not then Jaundice (Icterus) occurs.
  13. Usually stored in the gall bladder (bile sac).
    bile
  14. green pigment
    Biliverdin
  15. yellow pigment
    Bilirubin
  16. Passing through the vessel wall
    Diapedesis

    Characteristics of Red & White Blood Cells & Thrombocytes (Platelets)
  17. Life span is probably between 1 month and 4 months
    Erythrocytes
  18. (Actually several different types but described as one) 

    Spherical shape (like a ball) 

    Vary in size, but average is about 10 microns 

    5,000 to 10,000 per mm3
    Leukocytes

    Characteristics of White Blood Cells
  19. Function is to fight infections
    Leukocytes via Phagocytosis
  20. surround, engulf and destroy foreign substances in the blood
    Phagocytosis
  21. white blood cells are sometimes called
    Phagocytes
  22. Life span may vary from a few days to a few weeks
    Leukocytes
  23. Disc shape  (sometimes referred to as fragments) 

    Vary in size, but about 3 microns in diameter 

    130,000 to 360,000 per mm3
    Thrombocytes 

    Characteristics of Platelets
  24. Function is the Clotting or Coagulation of blood
    Thrombocytes

    Characteristics of Platelets
  25. 92 % to 95 % of Plasma
    Water 

    Components of Plasma
  26. 5 % to 8 % of Plasma
    Dissolved Components

    Components of Plasma
  27. Blood Proteins
       Serum albumin 
       Serum globulin 
       fibrinogen 

    Inorganic Salts of Na, K, Ca, & Mg 
       Chlorides 
       Bicarbonates 
       Phosphates 
       Sulfates 

    Nutrients 
       Carbohydrates (Glucose) 
       Fats 
       Proteins 
       Minerals 
       Vitamins 

    Wastes 

    Respiratory Gases 
        02 
        CO2
        N2 

    Enzymes 

    Hormones 

    Antibodies 

    Others 
       Drugs 
       Anything else
    Dissolved Components

    Components of Plasma
  28. Plasma that has the clotting factors removed.
    Serum
  29. 40 - 43 % Population     UNIVERSAL DONOR
    Blood Type O
  30. 40 - 45 % Population
    Blood Type A
  31. 10 - 15 % Population
    Blood Type B
  32. 4 -  5 % Population       UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT
    Blood Type AB
  33. UNIVERSAL DONOR
    Type O Blood
  34. UNIVERSAL RECEPIENT
    Type AB blood
  35. Discovered in the rhesus monkey
    Rh factor
  36. Rh factor
    blood protein
  37. 85 % Population
    Rh +  (positive) – means you have it
  38. 15 % Population
    Rh -  (negative) – means you do NOT have it
  39. Condition in which the pregnant mother is Rh negative and the Baby is Rh positive
    Erythroblastosis fetalis
  40. Mother's body builds up antibodies against the Rh factor from Baby's body which in essence will cause the Mother's body to reject the Baby's body (from within by its own blood).
    Erythroblastosis fetalis
  41. It does not usually occur until after the first pregnancy where the above conditions exists.
    Erythroblastosis fetalis
  42. Treatments may involve either Rho Gamma treatments given to Rh negative pregnant women who may be carrying an Rh positive Baby or transfusion of the Baby while in utero.    
    Erythroblastosis fetalis
  43. (1) Thromboplastin(thrombokinase) (cephalin)
    (2) Prothrombin
    (3) Calcium
    (4) Fibrinogen
    (5) Vitamin K
    Substances in blood that are involved in clotting
  44. (1) Antithrombin
    (2) Heparin (Antiprothrombin)
    Substances in blood that inhibit clotting
  45. (1) Prior to clotting – prothrombin is inactive as the result of presence of antiprothrombin

    (2) Fragmentation of blood platelets releases thromboplastin

    (3) Thromboplastin neutralizes antiprothrombin, thus liberating prothrombin

    (4) Prothrombin  + Ca forms thrombin

    (5) Thrombin  + fibrinogen forms fibrin

    (6) Fibrin  + blood cells forms the clot
    Chemistry of clotting blood
  46. 3 to 5 minutes
    Coagulation time
  47. 1. "Wall" dividing the thoracic from the abdominal cavities.
    Diaphragm
  48. 2. Action of blood cells escaping the vascular system by passing through the walls of the capillaries is called:
    Diapedesis
  49. 3. Arteries have three layers in their walls while arterioles have _____.
    two layers
  50. 4. Blood cells make up approximately _____% of the blood volume.
    45 %
  51. 5. Blood cells responsible for clotting are called _____.
    Thrombocytes
  52. 6. Blood cells responsible for fighting‑off infections.
    • Leukocytes
    • WBCs
  53. 7. Blood cells which contain hemoglobin.
    • Erythrocytes
    • RBCs
  54. 8. Blood type _____ is said to be the universal donor.
    O
  55. 9. Blood vessels that carry the blood in the general direction towards the heart.
    Veins
  56. 10. Innermost layer of an artery or vein is made up of this type of basic (elemental) body tissue.
    Endothelium
  57. 11. Middle layer of the wall of the heart is called _____.
    Myocardium
  58. 12. Name of the individual credited with the discovery of the circulation of blood.
  59. 13. Name six (6) Functions of the blood.
    • -  transport of O2, CO2, food, wastes, hormones, etc.
    • -  temperature regulation. 
    • -  control of pH (the hydrogen ion, H+, concentration). 
    • -  control of water balance. 
    • -  defense of against infection (phagocytosis) and immunity. 
    • -  repair & regeneration processes (healing process).
  60. 14. Normal pH of blood is _____(a number).
    7.3 to 7.4
  61. 15. Outer layer of an artery or vein is called the tunica _____.
    externa
  62. 16. Portion of the blood that is about 95% water.
    Plasma
  63. 17. Position with the body standing erect, facing the observer, and the hands at the side with the palms facing the observer is said to be the _____.
    anatomical study
  64. 18. Process by which a blood cell surrounds, engulfs and destroys foreign substances:
    Phagocytosis
  65. 19. Process by which leukocytes surround, ingest, and destroy foreign substances in the blood stream.
    Phagocytosis
  66. 20. Region immediately inferior to the hypochondriac region of the abdomen.
    LUMBAR REGION
  67. 21. Study of blood is called _____.
    Hematology
  68. 22. Study of the circulatory system, including the blood, lymph, heart, arteries, veins, and lymph vessels is called _____.
    Angiology  
  69. 23. System of the body that deals with the blood, heart, arteries, veins, and lymphatics is called _____.
    circulatory system
  70. 24. Term visceral refers to _____.
    pertaining to the viscera, or the internal organs contained within a cavity.
  71. 25. Term which means, the study of blood.
    Hematology
  72. 26. Vessel leaving the heart that carries blood towards all parts of the body.
    Artery
  73. 27. Characteristics of the blood - 
    -  Color is due to what substance in the blood. 

    -  Temperature is _____. 

    -  Specific Gravity is slightly greater than _____. 

    -  pH (hydrogen ion concentration) is _______  (This is slightly _______.)
    • - ?
    • - 38° C or 100.3° F
    • - 1.041 to 1.067
    • - 7.3 to 7.4, basic or alkaline
  74. 28. Another name for Blood Cells is ______ or ______  __________.
    Corpuscles, Formed Elements
  75. 29. The three (3) types of blood cells:

              1. _____________ and alternate name  ______________

              2. _____________ and alternate name  ______________

              3. _____________ and alternate name  ______________
    • 1. Erythrocytes, Red Blood Cells
    • 2. Leukocytes, White Blood Cells
    • 3. Thrombocytes, Platelets
  76. 30. Blood cells make up ______ % of blood volume.
    45 %
  77. 31. Plasma makes up ______ % of blood volume.
    55 %
  78. 32. Characteristics of Red Blood Cells 
              Shape 
              Size 
              Number  
              Function      
              Contains
              Life span
              Diapedesis
    • Biconcave shape (more or less round and flat with an indention on each side) 
    • 7.7 microns in diameter 
    • 4,000,000 to 6,000,000 per mm3 (cubic millimeter) 
    • Function is to  Carry O2 and CO2
    • Hemoglobin
    • Life span is probably between 1 month and 4 months
    • Passing through the vessel wall
  79. 33. Characteristics of White Blood Cells 
              Shape 
              Size      
              Number   
              Function 
              Life span 
              Diapedesis
    • Spherical shape (like a ball)
    • Vary in size, but average is about 10 microns
    • 5,000 to 10,000 per mm3
    • Function is to fight infections
    • Life span may vary from a few days to a few weeks
    • Passing through the vessel wall
  80. 34. Characteristics of Platelets 
              Shape  
              Size    
              Number 
              Function 
              Diapedesis
    • Disc - sometimes referred to as fragments
    • Vary in size, but about 3 microns in diameter
    • 130,000 to 360,000 per mm3
    • Clotting or Coagulation of blood
    • Passing through the vessel wall
  81. 35. Another name for Gall Bladder is _______.
    bile sac
  82. 36. Define Bilirubin
    Hemoglobin breaks down as the RBC's decompose forming Biliverdin (green pigment) then Bilirubin (yellow pigment) forms.
  83. 37. Define Biliverdin
    Hemoglobin breaks down as the RBC's decompose

    green pigment
  84. 38. Define Icterus
    Jaundice
  85. 39. Define Jaundice
    Icterus
  86. 40. Define Phagocytes
    white blood cells that surround, engulf and destroy foreign substances in the blood
  87. 41. Define Phagocytosis
    surround, engulf and destroy foreign substances in the blood
  88. 42. Define Serum
    Plasma that has the clotting factors removed
  89. 43. List some of the common Components of Plasma:
    Water  (92 % to 95 % of Plasma is Water) 

    • Dissolved Components (5 % to 8 % of Plasma are the following 
    •      Blood Proteins 
    •           Serum albumin 
    •           Serum globulin 
    •           fibrinogen 

    •       Inorganic Salts of Na, K, Ca, & Mg 
    •            Chlorides 
    •            Bicarbonates 
    •            Phosphates 
    •            Sulfates 

    •       Nutrients 
    •            Carbohydrates (Glucose) 
    •            Fats 
    •            Proteins 
    •            Minerals 
    •            Vitamins 

          Wastes 

    •       Respiratory Gases 
    •            O2 
    •            CO2 
    •            N2 

          Enzymes 

          Hormones 

          Antibodies 

    •       Others 
    •            Drugs 
    •            Anything else
  90. 44. The UNIVERSAL DONOR is Type ______ Blood.
    Type O
  91. 45. The UNIVERSAL RECEPIENT is Type ______ blood.
    Type AB
  92. 46. What are the four (4) Blood Types?
    • Type O
    • Type A
    • Type B 
    • Type AB
  93. 47. What is Erythroblastosis fetalis?
    Condition in which the pregnant mother is Rh negative and the Baby is Rh positive
  94. 48. What is the Rh factor ?
    blood protein
  95. 49. What percentage of the population does not have the Rh factor?
    15 % Population
  96. 50. What percentage of the population has the Rh factor?
    85 % Population
  97. 51. Who can give blood to another person?
    Type O

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