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Zoonosis: Disease human acquire from animals. They may or may not cause disease in animals as well. Name 4.
- (Bruce Found Barbara Yesterday)
Risk factors for zoonosis (3)
- Poor hygiene after handling pets
- Pet selection (wounded or sick animals)
- Proper animal care
Goats & Sheep
Pasteurization was created due to this.
Most common sources of infection due to Brucella?
- Contaminated milk products
- Direct contact with infected animal tissue
- Inhalation of bacteria
Drenching sweating episodes; aches, chills and fever 7-21 days after exposure; can become chronic
Brucellosis (Malta fever or Undulant fever)- cause by Brucella bacteria
Focal lesions occur in bones, joints, and genitourinary in what disease?
Severe acute febrile disease
Occupational exposure to Brucella bacteria can cause ___________
Brucella is an facultative intracellular bacteria in phagocytic cell and as such can spread to
- Bone marrow
- Lymph nodes
Which would be the best confirmation of a Brucella infection?
a) Blood cultures
b) Elevated serum titers of Ab
- Answer: Blood cultures. They are positive early in infection.
- Serological diagnosis is complicated due to the fact that antibodies persist after initial exposure; so Abs must be elevated from previous levels. Requires a 4x or greater rise in agglutination titer.
1) Gram-P or Gram-N
4) Rate of growth
- 1) Gram-N
- 2) Non-motile
- 3) Aerobic
- 4) Slow-growing (colonies form on solid medium in about 2-3 days)
- 5) Coccobacillus
Like Acinetobacter baumannii, Brucella resists _____
Are the smooth or rough colonies of Brucella virulent?
Brucella activates _______ in phagolysosomes.
Keeps the organism alive in the phagolysosome
How do you treat Brucellosis?
Doxycycline and rifampin for 4-6 weeks.
How many Francisella tularensis bacteria are required to infect:
Aerosol acquired infection in lungs?
Francisella tularensis, a facultative intracellular bacteria, causes
Tularemia (fever, chills, headaches, DIARRHEA, Dry cough, PROGRESSIVE WEAKNESS)
Handling or eating insufficiently cooked rabbit meat results in infection with
Francisella tularensis --> Tularemia
Don't give junior the lucky rabbit foot or run over rabbits.
Any mucous membrane can be a source of entry and infection of
What is the most common clinical form of Tularemia? How does it present?
Ulceroglandular (75%): Entry site ulcerates and regional lymph node swells
3) Grows on what media?
- 1) Gram-N
- 2) Obligate aerobe
- 3) Cysteine-glucose blood agar
What bacteria grows on Cysteine-glucose blood agar (can take up to 3 weeks)?
Francisella tularensis has _____ onset, but can take up to _____ to grow on media
abrupt, 3 weeks
1) Gram-P/N, shape
3) Temp it grows best at?
- 1) Gram-N rod with bipolar staining (safety pin)
- 2) Encapsulated when first isolated; subsequently lost in passage and becomes avirulent
- 3) Grows better at 30 C
Fleas can cause infection by what bacteria?
- Francisella tularensis
- Yersinia pestis
Inhaling droplets exhaled by animals or humans with pneumonic form of the disease can cause infection by?
2 Major Cycles of Yersinella pesits:
- 1) Sylvatic (enzootic) cycle: transmission amond wild rodents by fleas...prairie dogs, ground squirrels in US.
- 2) Urban cycle: Transmission among urban rats with flea as vector. --Bubonic plague
What disease causes plague?
3 Types of Plague
- Bubonic: 2-6 days after exposure; fever, headache, and buboes within day of symptoms
- Septicemic: Dissemination through the blood to many organs
- Pneumonic: Lung infection
3 Symptoms of Black Death
- Endotoxin related symptoms
- Cutaneous hemorrhage
3 Virulence Factors of Yersinella pestis
- Yops: Yersinia outer membrane protiens, form pore into eukaryotic cell
Which stains should you use for Y. pestis?
Giemsa or Wayson
Prairie dog, flea, ground squirrel and rat control are important in control of what bacteria?
Quarantine infected individuals
Name 4 species of Bartonella genus.
- B. neselae
- B. quintana
- B. bacilliofomis
- B. elizabethae
Which species of Bartonella is most commonly a cause of human disease? Associated with ____ and transmitted cat-to-cat by___
- B. henselae
- cats; fleas (result of cat scratch or bite in humans)
What bacteria is associated with cats?
How does Cat Scratch Disease (CSD)?
Localized lymphadenitis (common, benign)
Two Types of Cat Scratch Disease
What type of CSD develops a red-brown skin papule 7-12 days of being scratched that leads to regional lymph node enlargment? How do you treat this?
- Typical Cat Scratch Disease
- Self-limited (nodes enlarged for 2-3 months; painful and tender, may suppurate)
What disease results in Transient blindness?
What other symptoms are associated with this illness?
- Atypical CSD (Cat Scratch Disease)
- Systemic Symptoms: Malaise, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain
- Liver & Spleen lesions possible
- This disease is NOT associated with lymphadenopathy or cat scratches
Which type of CSD is not associated with cat scratches?
Name 3 Clinical forms of Atypical CSD
- 1) Bacillary angiomatosis (in immunocompromised- AIDS) - A proliferative vascular lesion resembling Kaposi's sarcoma
- 2) Subacute endocarditis (culture negative)
- 3) Retinitis
What is the best way to diagnose CSD?
In subacute endocarditis?
- Culture the organism and/or PCR
- Subacute endocarditis = serology
- Usually supportive
- Can treat with erythromycin or doxycycline