7G_Science2_Chp1

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bantter1
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184894
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7G_Science2_Chp1
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2012-11-25 15:58:46
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  1. What is a chemical bond?
    An interaction that holds atoms or ions together.
  2. Define Chemical Bonding
    The joining of atoms to form new substances (e.g. molecules or ionic compounds)
  3. Define a valence electron.
    An electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties.
  4. The properties of these new substances formed by chemical bonding are (different from or the same as) the original elements
    different from
  5. An interaction that holds two atoms together is called a
    chemical bond
  6. When a chemical bond forms, electrons are _____, ______ or _____.
    Electrons are shared, gained or lost.
  7. Electrons in an atom are organized in ______  ______, also called _____, ______, _______)
    Electrons in an atom are organized in energy levels, also called orbits, clouds, shells
  8. The first energy level closest to the nucleus can hold up to ____ electrons.
    Two.
  9. Tell how many valence electrons groups 1, 2, 13-18 in the Periodic Table have?
    Group 1: 1, Group 2: 2, Group 13: 3, Group 14: 4, Group 15: 5, Group 16: 6, Group 17: 7, Group 18: 8.
  10. Tell how many valence electrons groups 3-12 in the Periodic Table have?
    Usually 1-2; Atoms of elements in Groups 3-12 do not have a rule relating their valence electrons to their group number.
  11. The atomic number tells you how many _____ and
    _____ are in an atom
    The atomic number tells you how many electrons and protons are in an atom
  12. Atoms form bonds using electrons in ______ _______ ______.
    Atoms form bonds using electrons in outermost energy level.
  13. An electron in the outmost energy level is called a ______ electron.
    An electron in the outmost energy level is called a valence electron.
  14. In the Periodic Table, elements are grouped in columns according to their ______ and have the same number of ______ _______.
    In the Periodic Table, elements are grouped in columns according to their properties and have the same number of valence electrons.
  15. Most groups (1, 2, 13-18) have a way to determine their number of valence electrons based on their _____ number (except ______)
    Most groups (1, 2, 13-18) have a way to determine their number of valence electrons based on their group number (except Helium)
  16. Valence electrons determine if an atom _____.
    Valence electrons determine if an atom bonds.
  17. Group ____ usually does not bond because their outer shell is full because it has ___ electrons. _____ rule.
    Group 18 usually does not bond because their outer shell is full because it has 8 electrons. Octet rule.
  18. Atoms ___, ____ or _____ electrons to obtain a full outer shell.
    Atoms gain, lose or share electrons to obtain a full outer shell.
  19. An ionic bond is a bond that forms when _______ are ______ from one atom to another.
    An ionic bond is a bond that forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
  20. During ionic bonding, one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another to ____ that atom’s ______ ______.
    During ionic bonding, one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another to fill that atom’s outer level.
  21. Which type of elements (metals, non-metals and/or metalloids) normally form ionic bonds?
    A metal and a non-metal
  22. What is an Ion?
    A charged particle that forms when an atom or group of atoms gains or loses one or more electrons.
  23. Positive Ions ____ an electron. Groups __ and __ (metals). Energy is  ________. Symbol has a _____ sign.
    Positive Ions lose an electron. Groups 1 and 2 (metals). Energy is  needed. Symbol has a + (ex. Na⁺ or Ca²⁺)
  24. Negative Ions ____ an electron. Groups __ and __ (nonmetals). Energy is  ________. Symbol has a _____ sign.
    Negative Ions gain an electron. Groups 16 and 17 (non metals). Energy is gained. Symbol has a - (ex. Cl⁻ or O²⁻)
  25. When ionic bonds form the compound's charge becomes ______.
    When ionic bonds form the charge becomes neutral.
  26. When ions bond, they form a _____ _______ (orderly 3D pattern) which gives the compound certain properties (brittleness, high melting points and high boiling points)
    When ions bond, they form a crystal lattice (orderly 3D pattern) which gives the compound certain properties.
  27. What is a Covalent bond?
    A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
  28. Which type of elements (metals, non-metals and/or metalloids) normally form covalent bonds?
    Non-metals
  29. If two nonmetal atoms were to lose electrons it would require ___  _____ energy, so the two nonmetal atoms don’t transfer electrons…they ____ instead.
    If two nonmetal atoms were to lose electrons it would require a lot of energy, so the two nonmetal atoms don’t transfer electrons…they share instead.
  30. Substances with covalent bonds tend to have _____ melting and boiling points and are _____ when in solid state
    Substances with covalent bonds tend to have low melting and boiling points and are brittle when in solid state
  31. When the atoms with a covalent bond share electrons equally, they are called _____ covalent bonds, and there is __ charge.
    When the atoms with a covalent bond share electrons equally, they are called non-polar covalent bonds, and there is no charge.
  32. When the atoms with a covalent bond share electrons unequally, they are called _____ covalent bonds, and there is ______  charge.
    When the atoms with a covalent bond share electrons unequally, they are called polar covalent bonds, and there is a slight charge.
  33. The force that holds atoms together in a covalent bond is the ________ of each atom’s nucleus for the shared pair(s) of _______.
    The force that holds atoms together in a covalent bond is the attraction of each atom’s nucleus for the shared pair of electrons.
  34. A ______ usually consists of two or more atoms joined in a definite ratio
    A molecule usually consists of two or more atoms joined in a definite ratio.
  35. An electron dot diagram is a model that shows only the ______ electrons.
    An electron dot diagram is a model that shows only the valence electrons.
  36. What is an atom and what is a molecule?
    An atom is the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same element.

    A molecule is the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance.
  37. What is a diatomic molecule and give examples?
    A molecule made up of two atoms of the same element. H, O, N, and the halogens (F, Cl, Br, I).
  38. What are Diatomic Elements?
    Diatomic Elements are elements that are found in nature as diatomic molecules.
  39. What is a metallic bond?
    A metallic bond is a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them in the metal.
  40. In molecules with metallic bonds, the ____ _____ ____ are in fixed position in the metal whereas the _____ ______ are free to move.
    In molecules with metallic bonds, the positive metal ions are in fixed position in the metal whereas the negative electrons are free to move.
  41. The metallic bonds in metals give them the properties of  _____, _____and _______  _______.
    The metallic bonds in metals give them the properties of  malleability, ductility and electrical conductivity.
  42. In an ionic compound, what is the cation and anion?
    A cation is the positive ion. The anion is the negative ion.
  43. What are the 4 types of chemical bonds?
    • 1) Ionic bond,
    • 2) Polar covalent bond,
    • 3) Non-polar covalent bond, and
    • 4) Metallic bond.
  44. Match the type of bond with this description of how the bonds form: Attraction between oppositely charged ions
    Ionic bonds
  45. Match the type of bond with this description of how the bonds form: Unequal sharing of electrons
    Polar covalent bond
  46. Match the type of bond with this description of how the bonds form: Equal sharing of electrons
    Non-polar covalent bond
  47. Match the type of bond with this description of how the bonds form: Attraction between positively charged ions and surrounding electrons
    Metallic bonds
  48. Describe the charge on the bonded atoms in an Ionic Bond.
    There's either a positive or negative charge.
  49. Describe the charge on the bonded atoms in a Polar Colvalent Bond.
    There's a slight positive or slight negative charge.
  50. Describe the charge on the bonded atoms in a Non-polar Covalent Bond.
    There is no charge.
  51. Describe the charge on the bonded atoms in a Metallic Bond.
    There is a positive charge on the bounded atoms.
  52. Explain how to use the valence electrons in an atom to predict if the atom will form bonds?
    If there are 8 valence electrons, the atom will not form a bond. If there are between 1 and 7 electrons, the atom is likely to form bonds, except for Helium with 2.
  53. When are 2 valence electrons considered a full set?
    When its a Hydrogen or Helium atom.
  54. What is a crystal lattice?
    The regular (repeating, 3-D) pattern in which a crystal is arranged
  55. Which type of atoms usually become negative ions? metals, nonmetals, or noble gases?
    Nonmetals, like oxygen and those in Group 17.
  56. What are three properties of ionic compounds?
    Brittleness, high melting points, and high boliing points.
  57. What is the charge of an ion that has 12 protons and 10 electrons?
    +2 (written after the symbol)
  58. Which group of elements gains two valence electrons when the atoms form ionic bonds?
    Group 16 (six valence electrons)
  59. Explain why ionic compounds are neutral even though they are made up of charged particles?
    Because the charges of the bond ions cancel each other.
  60. Compare the formation of positive and negative ions in terms of energy change.
    • When positive ions are formed (lose electrons), energy is needed.
    • When negative ions are formed (gain electrons), energy is is given off.
  61. How many electrons are needed to fill the outer level of H and O?
    • H: 2,
    • O: 8
  62. An interaction that holds two atoms together is which of these: a) chemical bonding, b) colvalent bond, c) ionic bond, d) chemical bond or e) metallic bond.
    d) Chemical bond.
  63. Electrons free to move throughout a material are associated with which? a) crystal lattice, b) chemical bond, c) metallic bond, d)ionic bond, e) ion.
    metallic bond
  64. What type of element tends to lose electrons when it forms bonds? a) metal, b) metalloid, c) nonmetal or d) noble gas?
    a) Metal
  65. Compare the 4 types of bonds based on what happens to the valence electrons in the atoms.
    • Ionic: electron transfers from metal to nonmetal atom
    • Polar covalent: electron shared unequally
    • Nonpolar covalent: electron shared equally
    • Metallic: electrons free to move about the metal
  66. For Ca, how many electrons must it gain or lose to have a complete outer shell, and what would be the charge on it? Do same for P, Br and S.
    • Ca: lose 2, +2.
    • P: gain 3: -3
    • Br: gain 1: -1
    • S: gain 2: -2
  67. When an oxygen atom gains two electrons, it has a charge of ______, and is called an  ______ ion.
    When an oxygen atom gains two electrons, it has a charge of  2-, and is called an  oxide ion.
  68. The _____  ending is used for the names of the negative ions formed when atoms gain electrons.
    The  -ide ending is used for the names of the negative ions formed when atoms gain electrons. (O2- : oxide ion; Cl - : chloride ion; F - : floride ion)

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