fallacies

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Author:
pilvlp
ID:
184917
Filename:
fallacies
Updated:
2012-11-22 12:18:22
Tags:
Common fallacies fail falacies common
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Description:
Common fallacies
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  1. NON SEQUITUR
    The stated conclusion is not necessarily a logical result of the facts presented.
  2. ARGUMENT TO THE PEOPLE (AD POPULUM)
    The attempt to win popular assent to a conclusion by arousing the emotions and enthusiasms of the multitude rather than by appeal to the facts.
  3. FALSE COMPARISON (FAULTY ANALOGY)
    This fallacy consists in assuming that because two things are alike in one or more respects; theyare necessarily alike in some other respect or in all respects.
  4. EITHER / OR FALLACY (BLACK OR WHITE FALLACY / FALSE DILEMMA)
    The writer asserts that a complex issue has only two sides -- often one right, one wrong.
  5. HASTY GENERALIZATION
    An argument that is based on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence commits this fallacy.
  6. PERSONAL ATTACK (AD HOMINEM)
    Attack is made on a person’s character or circumstances rather than his or her argument.
  7. CIRCULAR REASONING (BEGGING THE QUESTION)
    An assertion that should be proved by argument is stated as truth. These arguments invite us toassume something has been proved when it has merely been restated.
  8. RED HERRING (CHANGING THE SUBJECT)
    An irrelevant point is introduced to divert the reader’s attention from the main issue.
  9. BANDWAGON APPEAL
    An attempt is made to validate or prove a point by suggesting “everyone else believes it.”
  10. FALSE CAUSE (POST HOC ERGO PROPTER HOC)
    The writer implies that because one event follows another in time the first event causes the second.
  11. TESTIMONIAL
    Use of a respected or well-known but non-expert figure to recommend a product, position, or cause.
  12. CARD-STACKING
    Carefully selecting only facts that support the writer’s position.

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