theories Skinner

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theories Skinner
2012-11-22 13:10:36

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  1. part of operant conditioning in which an operant response is followed by a reinforcer, thereby increasing the rate with which the response occurs
  2. situation in whcih the organism can avoid an aversive stimulus by engaging in appropriate activity
    avoidance contingency
  3. approach to treating behavior disorders taht is based on any one of several learning theories
    behavior therapy
  4. situation in which one response brings the organism into contact with stimuli that reinforce that reponse and stimulate the next response
  5. type of conditioning studied by ivan pavlov and used by JB watson as a model for his version of behaviorism
    classical conditioning
  6. response similar to an unconditioned response that is elicited by a previously neutral stimulus (CS)
    condition response
  7. stimuus that before classical conditioning principles are applied is biologically neutral: that is, it odes not elicit a natural reaction form an organism
    conditioned stimulus
  8. agreement betwen two people taht when one acts in approate way, the other one gives him or her something of value
    contigency contract
  9. purposeive manipulation of reinforcement contingencies so they encourage desirable behaviors
    contingency management
  10. situation in whcih  a certain reponse must be made before a reinfocer is obtained, that is, no repsonse, no reinforcer
    contingent reinforcement
  11. schedule of reinforcemnt that reinforces a desired response each time it occurs
    continuous reiforcement schedule
  12. use of contingency management in designing a culture
    cultural engineering
  13. a set of reinforcemnt contingencies
  14. situationin which some responses are reinfoced and others are not
    differential reinforcement
  15. operant response that is made under one set of circumstances but not under others
    discriminative operant
  16. cue indicatiing that if a cetain response is made it will be followed by reinforcemtn
    discriminative stimulus
  17. accurate repeating of what someone else had said
    echoic behavior
  18. situation in which an organism must response in a certain way to escpae form an aversive stimuls. all negavitve reinforcemtn involves this
    escape contingency
  19. weaking of an operant response by removing the reinforcer that had been following the response during acquisition. 
  20. reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response that is made only after a specified interval of time has passed
    fixed interval reinforcement
  21. reinforcemnt schedule that reinfoces everythin nth reponse
    fixed ratio reinforcement schedule
  22. skinners approach to research that attempted to relate measurable environmental events to measurable behavior and bypass cognitive and physiologial processes altogether
    functional analysis
  23. class of secondary reinforces taht have been apaired with more than on eprimary reinforcer
    generalized reinforcer
  24. verbal response that demands somethin and is reinforced when what is demanded is obtained
  25. type of reinforcement that occurs when a reponse removes a primary or secondary negative reinforcer
    negative reinforcement
  26. situation in which no relationship exists between an orgaism;s behavior and the availability of reinforcement
    noncontingent reinforcement
  27. behavior that cannot be linked to any known stimulus and therefore appears to be emitted rather than elicited
    operant behavior
  28. modification of repsonse strength bymanipulation of the consequences of the repsonse
    operant conditioning
  29. frequencey with which an operant resposne is made bfore it is systematically reinforced
    operant level
  30. fact that a partially or intermittently reinforced response will take longer to extinguish than a response on a continuous or 100% schedule of reinforcement
    partial reinforcementeffect
  31. schedule of reinforcement that sometimes reinforces a desired response and sometimes does not
    partial reinforcement schedule
  32. type of reinforcement that ocurs when a response makes available a primary or secndary positive reinforcer
    positive reinforcement
  33. negative reinforcer that threatens an organism's survival
    primary negative reinforcer
  34. positive reinforcer that enhances the organism survival
    primary positive reinforcer
  35. any stimulus that is positively or negatively rleated to an organism's survival
    primary reinforcer
  36. either removing a positive reinforcer or presenting a negative reinforcer
  37. the version of behaviorsm purposed by JB watson by which only directly observable events, such as stimulu and responses,  should constitute the subject matter of psychology
    radical behaviorism
  38. used by skinner to demonstrate operant conditioning
    rate of responding
  39. behavior that is elicited by a known stimulus
    respondent behavior
  40. another term for classical or Pavlovian conditioning
    respondent conditioning
  41. negative reinforcer that derives its reinforcing properties through its association with a primary negative reinforcer
    secondary negative reinforcer
  42. positive reinforcer that derives its reinforcing properties through its association witha  primary positive reinfocer
    secondary positive reinforcer
  43. objects or events that acquire reinforcing properties through their associationwith primary reinforcers
    secondary reinforcers
  44. gradual development of a response that an organism does not normally make
  45. the tendency to emit operant responses in sitautions other than those in wih the responses were learned
    stimulus generalization
  46. situation in which one those responses that are in increasingly similar to the one ultimately desired are reinforced
    successive approximations
  47. behavior taht develops under noncontingent reinforcemnt in which the organism seems to believe that a relationship exists between its actions and reinforcement, which in fact no such relationship exists
    superstitious behavior
  48. that part of verbal behavior that accurately names objects and events in the environemtn
  49. a form of punishment by which an organism is denied access to positive reinforcers that are normally available in the situation for a speciied interval of time
    time out from reinforcement
  50. example of skinnerian ehavior therapy that usually occurs within an institutional setting such as a psychiatric hospital or scool
    token economies
  51. term skinner used to describe the condition of operant or emitted behavior to emphasize the important of the response to such conditioning
    type R condining (operant)
  52. term skiner used to descrie classical condition to emphasize the importance of the stimuus to such conditioning
    Type S condition (respondent)
  53. natural, automatic response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
    unconditioned response
  54. stimulus that elicits an automatic, natural response from an organism
    Unconditioned stimulus
  55. reinforcemtns chedle in wich a certain average time inerval must pass before a respons will be reinforced
    variable interval reinforcement schedule
  56. reinforcemtn schedule in which a certainaverage numer of responeses need to be made before reinforeemcent  is obtained
    variable ration reinforcement schedule
  57. skiners term for language
    verbal behavior
  58. written by skinner to show how his learning principles could be applied ot cultural engineering
    Walden 2