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The ears change less in lifetime than any other facial feature.
(Although the lobe does get longer with age.)
The left and right ears of an individual are not exactly the same.
One ear is usually higher than the other.
In cosmetology the ears are considered a warm color area.
Pinna is the Latin word for the ear
The ear is said to be in the shape of a question mark.
The width of the ear is approximately 2/3rds the length of the ear.
The ear is 1/3 the length of the face.
The front border of the ear is aligned with the front border of the ear passage.
The ear is basically a wedge shaped structure
Physiognomy of Ear
The opening of the ear passage.
EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS
The outer rim of the ear.
The beginning of the outer rim lying in the concha.
CRUS OF THE HELIX
The inner rim of the ear.
The two branches of the inner rim.
CRURA OF THE ANTIHELIX
The shallow, three sided depression between the two branches of the inner rim.
The shallowest depression lying between the inner and outer rim.
The concave shell behind and above the ear passage. The concha occupies the middle-third of the ear.
The small eminence rising from the cheek and protecting the ear passage.
The small eminence on the upper margin of the lobe.
The hollow inlet between the tragus and antitragus; situated anteriorly on the upper border of the lobe.
The fatty inferior third of the ear.
1 …THE EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS…
2 …THE ZYGOMATIC ARCH…
3 …THE MANDIBULAR FOSSA…
4 …THE MASTOID PROCESS…
- FOUR ANATOMICAL GUIDES
- for locating the correct position of the ear
the front border of the ear is aligned with the front border of the ear passage.
THE EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS
this guide divides the length of the ear in to approximate halves
THE ZYGOMATIC ARCH
this guide lies directly anterior to the ear passage
THE MANDIBULAR FOSSA
this guide lies inferior and posterior to the ear passage where it is hidden from view by the lobe of the ear.
THE MASTOID PROCESS
the nose is basically a pyramid wedge shape
the nose generally has to be restored more times than any other feature
the nose, more than any other feature, tends to display family characteristics
the nose is the dominant feature of the face
accurate recreation is more essential than with any other feature
the root of the nose creates the upper limit for the length of the nose
the nasal spur creates the lower limits
Physiognomy of the Nose
the forehead eminence on the lower portion of the frontal bone just superior to the root of the nose
the anterior ridge of the nose composed of three parts; the root, the bridge, the protruding lobe
the concave dip below the glabella at the articulation of the frontal and nasal bones
root of the nose
the dome like structure over the upper part of the nasal cavity and formed by the nasal bones
bridge of the nose
the spherical area forming the inferior part of the dorsum it adjoins the wings and the columna nasi, it includes the tip of the nose which is the point of greatest projection
the wings are the lateral lobes of the nose which lie between the protruding lobe and the cheeks
the inferior margin of the wing which displays a concave arc
arch of the wing
the lateral walls of the nose bounded by the bridge, the cheeks, and the wings
sides of the nose
the angular depression located at the posterior margin of the wing and the superior end of the nasolabial fold
the opening of the nostrils in the base of the nose
the visible portion of the septum referred to as the superficial partition between the nostrils also considered the most inferior part of the nose
the vertical cartilage of the nose it divides the nasal cavity to make two relatively equal chambers
the points of reference are:
the root, the bridge, and the protruding lobe
profile views of the nose
there are three profile views of the nose (index)
straight profile concave profile convex profile
(aka grecian profile) this is the most common nasal profile all three points of reference (the dorsum) are in a straight line
the straight nose
(aka the infantile nose, pug nose, or button nose, retrousse, or snub) the protruding lobe turns up on the end
the concave nose
(aka the roman nose or the aquiline nose) sometimes referred to as a hook or hooked nose the convexity may be continuous from root to tip
the convex nose
three racial classifications of the human nose
leptorrhine platyrrhine mesorrhine
etymology: lepto - thin and straight; rhino - nose
this type of nose is described as long, straight, and narrow it is prominent at the bridge
- leptorrhine racial classification…
- (aka caucasian)
etymology: platy - broad and flat; rhino - nose
described as a shorter nose with a minimal projection at the bridge and broad at the base
- platyrrhine racial classification…
- (aka african american)
etymology: meso - middle, medium; rhino - nose
this profile is considered to be intermediate it is shorter than leptorrhine, it is narrower than platyrrhine
- mesorrhine racial classification…
- (aka mongoloid)