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The 12th amendment requires separate electoral ballots for the president and vice president. This was created because, during the election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson & Aaron burr were going against the federalists, Jefferson & burr won, but they each received 73 electoral votes and the house of representatives had to re vote 35 times until on the 36th ballot Jefferson won. This happened because during that time the 2 people that got the highest votes were president and vice president, even if they were in different political parties.
- Who: Aaron Burr vs. Alexander Hamilton
- What: Tragic climax in their "disagrement"
- When: July 1804
- Where: Weehawken, NJ
- Why: Hamilton stood against Burr in his plans to claim spanish land and create a Northern Confederacy
- Outcome: Hamilton was killed, Burr resumed his position as VP. Burr was betrayed by his General and was trialed for treason. Gov't failed to prove its case becaus eof John Marshall
- 1803 — 1805
- John Pickering, a judge of the District of New Hampshire, and Samuel Chase, a Supreme Court justice, were impeached when President Thomas Jefferson led an effort to remove Federalist judges from office. Pickering was convicted and removed from office on March 12, 1804, but Chase was aquitted and returned to his position on March 1, 1805.
- A political party started by Thomas Jefferson, and opposed by Hamiltonian Federalists.
- Wanted economic equality for all white men to protext them from any threats posed by the privileged few
- Favored territorial expansion, and supported the French Revolution.
Thomas Jefferson's secretary of treasury, native of Switzerland, best financial mind in the Republican party, convinced Jefferson of the use of the Bank of America, believed large debt was a "curse",unlike Hamilton, because it was a burden on the future, lowered debt from $83 to $57 mill, his policies shrank taxes and spending of National gov't, he also used military cuts, and revenues to repay debt
Jefferson wanted to break the Federalists hold on gov't, he deemed them guilty of misusing their offices for openly political reasons, and immediatly replaced them with Republicans.
Judiciary Act of 1801
In a last minute attempt to keep hold of gov't affairs, President John Adams passed the Judicary Act of 1801 which enlarged the Judicial Branch and packed it with more Federalists. President Thomas Jefferson repealed the Judicary Act of 1801 which was considered uncostitutonal by the Federalists
Marbury Vs. Madison
President Adams appointed 42 Justices of Peace before leaving office, his commision was never delivered and President Jefferson considered them invalid. Marbury was one of the 42 who never recieved their new position and James Madison, Secretary of State at the time, refused to deliver his position. Madison won, John Marshall used this event to give the Judicial Branch the power to rule something unconstitutuinal.
The British ship, The Leopard, ordered a U.S. ship to submit to a search, the Leopard opened fire upon the refusal of the U.S. ship to submit to the search. Three killed, 18 wounded, and four taken as "Royal Navy Desserters". This event almost triggered an Anglo-American War.
Embargo Act of 1807
This was passed by President Jefferson to gain more respect from British, and French traders, prohibited American ships from leaving port till France and Britain repealed their trading restrictions, almost all economic groups suffered. The idea was that Britian and France depended on America too much that it would give into their demands. This act backfired and destroyed American economy, it was repealed and replaced by the Non Intercourse Act.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Governor Harrison marched an army to the peaceful Indians' Prophet town in this battle, casualties were heavy on both sides, but Harrison regrouped his army and drove the Indians out then burned Prophet town
An act that replaced the Embargo Act. Unlike the Embargo Act, the Non-Intercourse act banned American trade with Britain and France only. Trade could be reopened if the nation removed its restrictions against American Shipping.
Macon's Bill, No. 2
Passed by congress, named after Nathaniel Macon. It opened trade for everyone, but if France, or Britiain repealed their policies against neutral trade, the president would resume sanctions against the other. This made President Madison look even more foolish.
Fletcher v. Peck, 1810
member of the Georgia state legislature was bribed to permit the sale of 30 million acres of land at less than two cents per acre for a total of $500,000.Those who had purchased the land refused to accept the return of their purchase price. Robert Fletcher purchased 15,000 acres from John Peck in 1803 for $3,000. Fletcher sued Peck to establish the constitutionality of the 1796 act; either the act was constitutional and the contract was void, or the act was unconstitutional and Fletcher had clear title to the land. Law was unconstitutional, Fletcher lost his land.