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What substances are transported throughout the body by the CARDIOVACULAR SYSTEM?
- O2 and CO2
- metabolic waste (to kidneys)
What are the 2 components of BLOOD?
What is PLASMA?
the liquid matrix of the blood
What are the FORMED ELEMENTS?
blood cells and cell fragments
What is the FUNCTION of ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)?
transport O2 and CO2
What is the FUNCTION of LEUKOCYTES (WBC)?
What is the FUNCTION of the PLATELETS?
Whole blood can be fractionated to form what?
- packed cells
What is the main component of packed cells?
How many liters of blood do men have? women?
What does it mean to be HYPOVOLEMIC?
low blood volumes
What does it mean to be HYPERVOLEMIC?
excessive blood volumes
What is normal pH LEVELS?
What percentage of blood does PLASMA make up?
What are the components of PLAMSA?
- 92% water
- 7% proteins
- 1% solutes
Describe the relationship between OXYGEN and PLASMA and CARBON DIOXIDE and PLASMA.
- high dissolved oxygen
- for diffusion into tissues
- low CO2 concentration
- for diffusion out of tissues
What are the PLASMA PROTEINS and the %age of each?
- albumin 60%
- globulins 35%
- fibrinogen 4%
What are the FUNCTIONS of ALBUMIN?
- osmotic pressure
- transports fatty acids and steroids
What are the FUNCTIONS of GLOBULINS?
- transport ions and hormones
What is the FUNCTION of FIBRINOGEN?
Describe the STRUCTURE of RBCs.
- biconcave disc
- thin central region
- no cell organelles
- no nucleus
What is the LIFE SPAN of RBCs? Why?
- 120 days
- no nucleus or cell organelles
Why is it so important that RBCs do not have a nucleus?
- the lack of a nucleus allows the cell to be more flexible as it travels through the circulatory system
- more room for hemoglobin
Why is it so important that RBCs have no mitochondria?
- can't make ATP
- no mitochondria to take oxygen
- sooooo, oxygen can go to tissues
What are the classes of LEUKOCYTES?
Which types of LEUKOCYTES are classified as GRANULOCYTES?
Which types of LEUKOCYTES are classified as AGRANULOCYTES?
Describe NEUTROPHILS. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
- granules have bacteria killing bacteria
- are the 1st on site
- mltilobed nucleus
Describe EOSINOPHILS. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
- inflammation reducing chemicals in granules
- attack foreign bodies that react with antibodies (ex. allergic reaction)
- bilobed nucleus
Describe BASOPHILS. What %age of leukocyes do they make up?
- histamine and heparin released by granules
- nucleus hidden by granules
What is the function of HEPARIN?
prevent abnormal blood clotting
What is the function of HISTAMINE?
dilate blood vessels
Describe MONOCYTES. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
- release chemicals to attract other phagocytes and fibroblasts
- kidney shaped nucleus
What is the function of FIBROBLASTS?
produce collagen fibers to surround an infected site and produce scar tissue
Describe LYMPHOCYTES. What %age of leukocytes do they make up?
- specific immunity
- large, round nucleus with small halo around it
What can LYMPHOCYTES differentiate into?
What is the function of T CELLS?
attack foreign cells directly
What is the function of B CELLS?
secrete antibodies to attack foreign cells
What is the function of NK CELLS?
Where are PLATELETS derived from? What is the main chemical?
- fragmented pieces of megakaryocytes
- main chemical is platelet thromboplastin factor
What are the functions of PLATELETS?
- platelet thromboplastin factor
- platelet plug
- contract clot
What is HEMEOSTASIS?
What is the PLATELET THROMBOPLASTIN FACTOR?
release of chemicals to initiate clotting process
How is a PLATELET PLUG formed?
when platelets clump together
How does the clot get contracted and anchored?
actin and myosin
What is HEMEOPOIESIS?
What are the steps of HEMEOPOIESIS?
- 1 pluripotential stem cells
- 2 differintiate into either myeloid or lymphoid stem cells
- 3 myeloid stem cells become RBC, platelets, or leukocytes
- 4 or lymphoid become lymphocytes