11.1.3 Christian Reconquest: The Spanish Kingdom

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  1. Reconquista
    • a.       Much of Spain part of Islam
    •                                                               i.      Cordoba= major urban center with 300, 000+ people
    •                                                             ii.      Agriculture and leather, wool, silk, and paper
    • b.      10th century: weakening of Muslim power and beginning of Christina reconquest that lasted until final expulsion of Muslims at end of 15th century= Reconquista
  2. Reconquest
    •                                                               i.      Small Christian kingdoms= northern Spain
    • 1.      Muslim disunity and support of French allowed Spanish Christian states to take offensive
    • a.       Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (El Cid) was most famous military adventurer
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Fought under either Christina or Muslim rulers
    • 1.      Carved out own kingdom of Valencia in 1094 but failed to create a dynasty and was reconquered by Muslims
  3. 12th Century End
    • 1.      Northern half= Christina kingdoms of Castile, Navarre, Aragon , and Portugal
    • 2.      SOurthern half= Muslim rule
  4. 13th Century
    Battle at Las Navas de Tolosa
    •                                                               i.      13th century= Christian rulers took offensive again
    • 1.      Aragona nd Castile two strongest Spanish kingdoms; Portugal up there
    • a.       All three made conquests of Muslim territory
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Castile= Andalusia
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Aragon= Valencia
    • 1.      Battle at Las Navas de Tolosa (1212)
    • a.       Alfonso VIII of Castile with 60000 men crushed Muslims
  5. Mid 13th Century
    •                                                               i.      Mid-13th century: Muslim only had Granada
    • 1.      Christian armies moved down peninsula; rulers followed repartimiento
    • a.       Gave houses, land, and property to those who made conquests (nobles, churchmen, soliders, royal officials got best land and new Christian colonists
    • b.      Muslims who weren’t killed and stood under Christian rule were mudejares and worked in industry
  6. To encourage movement into new regions,--> 
    •                                                               i.      To encourage movement into new regions, Spanish kings issued written privileges that guaranteed rule in accordance with law from most of the communities in kingdoms
    • 1.      Privileges (fueros):
    • a.        stipulated punishments for crimes and resolving
    • b.      Established regulations for citizenship
    • c.       Rules for service in miliia
    • d.      Laws protecting women and children
  7. Fueros
    • 1.      These fueros adopted due to attractive customs
    • a.       Kings were required to swear that they would respect community customs before taking office
    •                                                             ii.      Spanish kingdoms followed no consistent policy in treatment of conquered Muslims, who worked land but forced to pay high rents
    • Alfonso X: development of Christian+ Jewish+ Muslim culture
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11.1.3 Christian Reconquest: The Spanish Kingdom
2012-11-23 13:19:54
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