11.4 The Crusades

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  1. Crusades against __.
    Background to the Crusades
    • Muslims 
    • a.      Power in East by Europe never ceased, but weakened
    • b.      End of 11th c: contact increased
    • c.       Islam and Seljuk Turks
    •                                                               i.      Abbasid caliphate disintegrating
    • 1.      Attempt of Shi’ite dynasty called Fatimids
    • a.      Conquered Egypt: Cairo as capital; rivals to Sunni caliphate of Baghdad= division
  2. Fatimid Dynasty
    •                                                               i.      Benefited from position in heart of Nile delta; role in trade
    •                                                             ii.      Tolerant in religion
    •                                                           iii.      Created strong army with nonnatives as mercenaries
    • 1.      Seljuk Turks posed threat
  3. Seljuk Turks
    •                                                               i.      Nomads from c. Asia converted to Islam; militeray mercenaries for Abbasids
    • 1.      Took over eastern Abbasid provinces
    • a.      Turkish leader assumed command of Abbasid empire with title of sultan
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      11th c: exerting military pressure on Egypt and Byzantine empire
    • 1.      Defeated them at Manzikert in 1071à Byzantium looked to west for helpà Crusades
  4. Byzantine Empire
    •                                                               i.      Macedonian dynasty restored power
    • 1.      Incompetent successors reversed gains= ended in 1056
    •                                                             ii.      Internal power struggles between military and aristocrats
    • 1.      Aristocratic families tried to buy landowner support of Anatolia by allowing greater control over peasants
    • a.      Self-destructive since peasant-warriors were backbone
  5. Division and Threats
    •                                                               i.      Division beween West Church and East Orthodox weakened state
    • 1.      East didn’t wnt to accept pope as sole head
    • a.      Climaxed in 1054
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius excommunicated each other,c reating schism
    •                                                             ii.      External threats
    • 1.      Seljuk Turks advanced into Anatolia after defeat at Manzikert, where peasants accepted their rule
  6. New Dynasty
    • 1.      Comneni under Alexius I Comnenus
    • a.      Defeated Pechenegs and stopped Turks
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Lacked resourcesà Emperor Alexius I asked for military help from Westà Crusades
  7. The Early Crusades
    • a.      Based on idea of holy war against unbeliever
    •                                                               i.      Christians vs. Muslims
    • 1.      Eleventh century: Christians have opportunity to attack Muslims
    • b.      Impetus
    •                                                               i.      Alexius I asks Pope Urban II for help against Turks
    • 1.      Pope wanted papal leadership to rally warriors to free Jerusalem and the Holy Land
    • a.      Jerusalem object of Christian pilgrimages
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Council of Clermont, Urban encouraged Christians to join holy war to recover Holy Land, promising remission of sins
  8. View
    First Crusade
    • a.      View
    •                                                               i.      Appalling combo of military and religions
    • b.      First Crusade
    •                                                               i.      Preceded by exercise in religious fanaticism and futility
    • 1.      Peter the Hermit (self-elected leader) conviced a mob to join Crusade to East
    • a.      Peasant’s Crusade made up rabble that moved through Balkans, terrorizing and looting
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Led to persecution of Jews
    • b.      Two bands of peasant crusaders reached Constantinople, where Alexis shipped them to Asia Minor; they were killed by Turks
  9. First Crusade-->Pope Urban II
    •                                                               i.      Pope Urban II inclined to trust knights
    • 1.      Warriors formed first crusading armies
    • a.      Knights motivated by religions and adventure, as well as opportunity to fight
    • b.      Others saw territorial gain, riches, status, etc. 
  10. Crusades offered  what?
    •                                                               i.      Crusades offered way to rid Europe of young nobles who disturbed the pece and fought each other
    • 1.      “Peace of God” and “Truce of God” was unsuccessful
    • 2.      Merchants saw new trading opportunities
  11. Begun iin 1096
    • 1.      3 organized bands of warriors (most French) went to East
    • a.      Several thousand calvalry; 10000 soldiers
    • 2.      After Antioch captured in 1098, they went down coast of Palestone, reaching Jerusalem in 1099
    • a.      5-week siegeà took Holy City
    • 3.      After more conquests, the crusaders ignored emperor’s wishes and organized foru crusader states (Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem)
    • a.      Surrounded by Muslims and dependent on Italian cities for supplies
  12. Second Crusade
    •                                                               i.      1120s Muslims strike back
    •                                                             ii.      1144: Edessa is first of four Latin states recapturedà second Crusade
    • 1.      Bernard of Clairvaux aimed message at knights and enlisted Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany
    •                                                           iii.      Fail
  13. Third Crusade
    •                                                               i.      Reaction to fall of Jerusalem in 1187 to Muslims under Saladin
    • 1.      Three major monarchies agreed to lead
    • a.      Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Drowned swimming and his army fell apart
    • b.      Philip II Augustus of France
    • c.       King Richard I the Lionhearted
    • 2.      Englihs and French successful against coast; inland failure
    • a.      Philip went home
    • b.      Richard made negotiation
  14. I.                   Crusades of the Thirteenth Century
    • a.      After Saladin’s death in 1193, Innocent III initiated the Fourth Crusade
    • b.      On way,
    •                                                               i.      Crusading army disputed over Byzantine successor to throne
    • 1.      Venetian leaders saw opportunity to neutralize the Byzantine Empire, their greatest competitor
    • a.      They sacked the capital city in 1204 and created a new Latin Empire of Constantinople
  15. Crusades of the Thirteenth Century 
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1261: Byzantine army recaptured Constantinople
    • 1.      Saved, but no longer powerful
    • a.      Restored empire= city of Constantinople and surrounding territories
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      1453: destroyed by Ottoman Turks
  16. 1212
    Fifth Crusade
    • a.      1212: Nicholas of Cologne in Germany led Children’s Crusade to the Holy Land that he was inspired by God
    •                                                               i.      Pope told them to go home
    • 1.      Next Crusade of adult warriors not any more successful
    • b.      Fifth Crusade
    •                                                               i.      Attempt to recover Holy Land by way of the powerful Muslim state of Egypt
    • 1.      Some early success; ultimate failure and end to papal leadership of western Crusades
  17. Sixth Crusade
    •                                                               i.      Led by German emperor Frederick II
    • 1.      No papal support due to emperor being excommunicated
    •                                                             ii.      1228:  Frederick went to Jerusalem and accepted crown as king of there after he made agreement with sultan of Egypt
    • 1.      Holy City taken without fight or papal support
    • a.      Frederick leftà city fell again to Turks allied with sultan of Egypt
  18. Last two major Crusades 
    • a.      Last two major Crusades poorly organized by Louis IX of France
    •                                                               i.      Christian possessions in Middle East retaken
    • 1.      Acre, the last foothold of the crusaders, surrendered in 1291
  19. I.                   Effects of the Crusades
    Middle East
    • a.      Little effect on middle east
    •                                                               i.      Conquests evident only in castles
    • 1.      May have been some broadening of perspective through cultural exchanges, but Christian Europe and Muslim interaction were both more intense and meaningful in Spain and Sicily than in the Holy Land
    • b.      Stabilizing effect? Debatable
    •                                                               i.      Yes? Because Western monarchs established control more easily 
  20. I.                   Effects of the Crusades
    Negative Side Effects
    • a.      Contributed to economic growth of Italian port cities
    •                                                               i.      Growing wealth made Crusades possible
    • b.      May have enhanced revival of trade, but didn’t cause it
    • c.       Negative side effects
    •                                                               i.      First widespread attacks on the Jews began with the crusades and became a regular feature 
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11.4 The Crusades
2012-11-23 14:05:26
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