Chem chapter 7

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Anonymous
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184981
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Chem chapter 7
Updated:
2012-11-23 09:44:53
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solutions dilution
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solutions, dilution, solubility
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  1. What is a solution and an example
    A homogenous mixture consisting of solute and a solvent

    (Kool-aid, IV fluids, Salt water etc.)
  2. What is a heterogenous mixture
    mixture that is un-uniform throughout
  3. solute =
    substance that is dissolved in a solution
  4. solvent =
    substance in which the solute is dissolved; usually present in larger quantity.(aqueous solution)

    This substance will maintain its phase of matter
  5. properties of a solution=
    • -particles are evenly distributed
    • -components do not chemically reat with each other
    • -aqueous solutions are transparent
    • -components do not seperate upon standing
    • -concentration can be changed
  6. electrolytes =
    compounds that dissolve in water to form ions (particles with + or - charge)
  7. what is the first rule in solubility?
    Like dissolves like
  8. solubility refers to
    the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temp
  9. unsaturated solution =

    saturated solution =
    does not contain the max amount of solute

    DOES contain the max amount of solute
  10. What affects solubility?
    temperature - gases = increase temp then decrease in solubility decrease temp then inrease solubility

    • temperature - liquid/solid increase temp=more soluble
    • decrease temp = less soluble

    pressure - gas/liquid increase press of gas = increased solubility in liquid (Bends)
  11. what is an equivalent?
    amount of dissovled ion can be expressed by Eq

    It relates the charge in a solution to the number of ions or moles of ions present

    Na+ = 1 Eq = 1mole Na+

    • Ca2+ = 2 Eq = 2mole Ca2+ 
    • Eq/mole = the charge on the ion
  12. 1000mEq =
    1 Eq
  13. concentration =
    the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution 

    concentration  = amnt solute/amnt solvent
  14. molarity=
    M=mole/L
  15. % concentrations
    mass/volume
    mass/mass
    volume/volume
    • mass/volume = g/ml (100)
    • mass/mass = g/g (100)
    • volume/volume  = mL/mL (100)
  16. ppm

    ppb
    ppm = g solute/mL solvent (1x106)

    ppb = g solute/mL solvent (1x109)
  17. dilution equation
    CiVi=CfVf

    keep percent as a whole in equation
  18. osmosis =
    diffusion of water
  19. isotonic solutions =
    concentrations of solutes in the solutions is the same on both sides of the membrane
  20. hypotonic solution
    • water flows into the cell
    • lyse
  21. hypertonic solution
    • water flows outside of the cell
    • crenation
  22. passive diffusion
    • oes not require energy
    • small molecules an non-polar ones like O2, N2, and CO2 use this process
  23. Facilitated Diffusion
    uses protein channels for ions and small molecules to pass through
  24. Active Diffusion
    goes against concentration gradients requires ATP to work

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