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Concepts Growth ad Development
Concepts of Growth and Development (chapter 20)
What is growth and development?
Growth is physical changes and increase in size. Growth can be measured. Indicators of growth include height, weight, bone size, and dentition.
Development is an increase in the complexity of funtion and skill progression. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth. it is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment.
Factors influencing growth and development?
What are 5 Freud's Stages of Development?
Freud's Oral stage
: birth to 1 1/2 year
: Mouth is the center of plearsure (major source of gratification and exploration.) Security is primary need. major conflict; weaning
: feeding produces pleasure and sence of comfort and safety. feeding should be pleasurable and provided when required.
Freud's Anal stage
: 1 1/2 to 3 years
: Anus and bladder are the sources of pleasure (sensual satisfaction, self-control). Major conflict; toilet training
: Controlling and explelling feces provide pleasure and sense of control. Toilet training should be a pleasurable experience.
Freud's Phallic stage
: 4 to 6
: Genitals center of pleasure, masturbation offers pleasure, fantasy, experimentation with peers, questioning abults about sexual topics, major conflict; oedipus/electra complexes
: Child identifies with the parent of the opposite sex and later takes on a love relationship outside the family
Freud's Latency stage
: 6 years to puberty
: Energy is directed to physical and intellectual activities. Sexual impluses tend to be repressed. Develop relationships between peers of the same sex.
: Encourage child with physical and intellectual pursuits. Encourage sports and other activities with same-sex peers.
Freud's Genital stage
: Puberty and after
: Energy is directed toward full sexual maturity and function and development of skills needed to cope with the environment.
: Encourage separation from parents, achievement of independence, and decision making
Erikson's 8 stages of Development
Infancy (birth to 18 months)- trust verses mistrust
Early childhood (18months to 3 years)- autonomy verus shame and doubt
Late childhood (3 to 5 years)- Initiative versus guilt
School-age (6 to 12 years)- Industry versus inferiority
Adolescence (12 to 20)- identity versus role confusion
Young Adult (18 to 25 years)- intimacy versus isolation
Adulthood (25 to 65 years)- generativity versus stagnation
Maturity (65 years to death)- Integrity versus despair