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What is growth and development?
- Growth is physical changes and increase in size. Growth can be measured. Indicators of growth include height, weight, bone size, and dentition.
- Development is an increase in the complexity of funtion and skill progression. Development is the behavioral aspect of growth. it is the capacity and skill of a person to adapt to the environment.
Factors influencing growth and development?
What are 5 Freud's Stages of Development?
Freud's Oral stage
- Age: birth to 1 1/2 year
- Characteristics: Mouth is the center of plearsure (major source of gratification and exploration.) Security is primary need. major conflict; weaning
- IMplications: feeding produces pleasure and sence of comfort and safety. feeding should be pleasurable and provided when required.
Freud's Anal stage
- Age: 1 1/2 to 3 years
- Characteristics: Anus and bladder are the sources of pleasure (sensual satisfaction, self-control). Major conflict; toilet training
- Implications: Controlling and explelling feces provide pleasure and sense of control. Toilet training should be a pleasurable experience.
Freud's Phallic stage
- Age: 4 to 6
- Characteristics: Genitals center of pleasure, masturbation offers pleasure, fantasy, experimentation with peers, questioning abults about sexual topics, major conflict; oedipus/electra complexes
- Implications: Child identifies with the parent of the opposite sex and later takes on a love relationship outside the family
Freud's Latency stage
- Age: 6 years to puberty
- Characteristics: Energy is directed to physical and intellectual activities. Sexual impluses tend to be repressed. Develop relationships between peers of the same sex.
- Implications: Encourage child with physical and intellectual pursuits. Encourage sports and other activities with same-sex peers.
Freud's Genital stage
- Age: Puberty and after
- Characteristics: Energy is directed toward full sexual maturity and function and development of skills needed to cope with the environment.
- Implications: Encourage separation from parents, achievement of independence, and decision making
Erikson's 8 stages of Development
- Infancy (birth to 18 months)- trust verses mistrust
- Early childhood (18months to 3 years)- autonomy verus shame and doubt
- Late childhood (3 to 5 years)- Initiative versus guilt
- School-age (6 to 12 years)- Industry versus inferiority
- Adolescence (12 to 20)- identity versus role confusion
- Young Adult (18 to 25 years)- intimacy versus isolation
- Adulthood (25 to 65 years)- generativity versus stagnation
- Maturity (65 years to death)- Integrity versus despair