Env 17b

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Env 17b
2010-05-09 19:37:14

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  1. Sulfer Dioxide
    • •colorless gas with a strong odor
    • -Coal emissions from electricity generation and industry
    • -Can form acid precipitation

  2. Nitrogen Dioxide
    highly reactive, foul smelling reddish brown gas
  3. Nitrogen Oxides
    • -nitrogen and oxygen react at high temperatures
    • -Vehicle engine and industrial combustion, electrical utilities
    • -Contributes to smog and acid precipitation
  4. Tropheric Ozone
    • •a colorless gas with a strong odor
    • -A secondary pollutant
    • -Results from interactions of sunlight, heat, nitrogen oxides, and volatile carbons
    • -A major component of smog
    • -Poses a health risk as a result of its instability
  5. Particulate Matter
    solid or liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere
  6. Lead
    particulate pollutant added to gas and used in industrial metal smelting
  7. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
    carbon-containing chemicals used emitted by vehicle engines and industrial processes
  8. Scrubbers
    technologies that chemically convert or physically remove pollutants before they leave the smokestacks
  9. Toxic Air Pollutants
    substances known to cause cancer; reproductive defects; or neurological, development, immune system, or respiratory problems
  10. Smog
    unhealthy mixtures of air pollutants over urban areas
  11. Industrial (gray) smog
    • industries burn coal or oil
    • -Occurs in cooler, hilly areas
    • -Government regulations in developed countries reduced smog
    • -Coal-burning industrializing countries face significant health risks
  12. Ozone Layer
  13. •ozone in the lower stratosphere
    -12 ppm concentrations effectively block incoming damaging ultraviolet radiation
  14. Ozone Holes
    ozone levels over Antarctica had declined by 40-60%
  15. Montreal Protocal
    180 nations agreed to cut CFC production in half
  16. Acidic Deposition
    the deposition of acid, or acid-forming pollutants, from the atmosphere onto Earth’s surface
  17. atmospheric deposition
  18. the wet or dry deposition on land of pollutants
  19. Effects from acid deposition
    • •Nutrients are leached from topsoil
    • •Soil chemistry is changed
    • •Metal ions (aluminum, zinc, etc.) are converted into soluble forms that pollute water
    • •Widespread tree mortality
    • •Affects surface water and kills fish
    • •Damages agricultural crops
    • •Erodes stone buildings, corrodes cars, erases writing on tombstones
  20. Indoor Air Polution in developing countries
    • •Stems from burning
    • -Wood, charcoal, dung, crop wastes
    • -Little to no ventilation
    • •Fuel burning pollution causes an estimated 1.6 million deaths per year
    • -Soot and carbon monoxide
    • -Causes pneumonia, bronchitis, allergies, cataracts, asthma, heart disease, cancer and death
  21. Tobacco and Radon
    • •The most dangerous indoor pollutants in the developed world
    • •Secondhand smoke from cigarettes is especially dangerous
    • -Containing over 4000 dangerous chemicals
    • -Causes eye, nose, and throat irritation
    • -Smoking has declined in developed nations
    • •Radon causes 20,000 deaths a year in the U.S.
    • -A radioactive gas resulting from natural decay of rock; soil; or water, which can seep into buildings
    • -Most homes are now radon resistant
  22. Sick building Sydrom
    a sickness produced by indoor pollution with general and nonspecific symptoms