International Organizations & International Law Part II

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International Organizations & International Law Part II
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  1. Functions of International Law
  2. The functions of international law include ______ as principal subjects and agents of international law;
    states
  3. and international law being concerned with the regulation of _______-______ relations.
    inter-state
  4. The scope of international law was confined to questions of _____.
    order
  5. These questions of order would concern _______-_______ behavior.
    inter-state
  6. All of these funcitons would be considered the ______ area of jurisdiction.
    classic
  7. States went beyond pursuit of international order
  8. Who are increasingly becoming recognized subjects of international law? ( 3 things)
    • Individuals
    • Groups
    • Organizations
  9. What are some examples of this?
    • The war crimes tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia
    • The creation of a new International Criminal Court
    • Arrent in London of Augusto Pinochet.
  10. International law now concerned with global, not merely international regulation.
  11. This includes international ______, ______, and ______ ______, and ______ law.
    trade; environmental; human rights; copyright
  12. Reasons states obey international law
  13. The reasons states obey international law includes the _____ of disorder and reprisal, the desire to be-and appear to be-good _____ of _______ society, and because states have strong ____ to free themselves from _______'s insecurities.
    fear; citizens; international; incentives; anarchy
  14. True/ False: Nearly all states care about international law. If false, why?
    No state does not care about international law.
  15. States care because they want to be members of the ________ community; this is the _____ community of the world.
    international; only
  16. Limitations
  17. The limitations of international law include that there is no international ______ for enforcement;
    executive
  18. no international ________;
    legislature
  19. and no judiciary with ______ jurisdiction.
    compulsory
  20. Sources of international law
  21. Sources of international law include political and legal _________, international _____ and _______, judicial __________, general principles of law recognized by _________ nations, and the _______ of international organizations.
    theories; treaties; customs; decisions; civilized; practices
  22. List some of the international organizations who are sources of international law. (2 organizations part of the U.N.)
    • Security Council
    • General Assembly
  23. What do virtually all laws emerge from?
    International customs
  24. What is the dominant source of law today?
    International treaties.
  25. Explain how the Security Council acts as a source of international law.
    When it passes a resolution, it becomes a law, or the source of one.
  26. How can such laws be changed?
    They cannot, unless you override it with another resolution
  27. Other areas of international law
  28. Other areas of international law, which can be described as ________ rights, include ______ rights law, principles of ________, _______ of slavery, _______ of war, _______ against women, and ______ of children.
    universal; human rights; sovereignty; abolition; conduct; discrimination; protection
  29. U.N. Charter
  30. The U.N. Charter allowed force for ______-_______, prohibition of _______ (1975) and biological (1997) weapons, and treatment of _____.
    self-defense; biological; chemical; POWs
  31. When it comes to self-defense, the law of _____ must be followed.
    proportionality
  32. What is the law of proportionality?
    A tradition in which the proportionality of a response is compared to the crime that led to the response.
  33. Liberal View of International Law
  34. Liberals believe that there is no international government, but ______ are still needed to keep in check with existing _______.
    mechanisms; anarchy
  35. The liberal view on international law is that it is the ______ thing to do;
    right
  36. states want to do what is right and _____;
    moral
  37. international law _____ what is right;
    reflects
  38. states ____ from doing what is right and moral;
    benefit
  39. states want to be viewed _______, be respected by ______ opinion, and fear being _____ by pariahs and and losing face and ____ in the international system.
    positively; world; prestige
  40. If states do not choose to follow international law, other members have recourse, such as....(4 things)
    • Diplomatic protests
    • Reprisals
    • Economic boycotss, embargoes
    • Military force
  41. Sovereignty is ____ by international organizations.
    weakened
  42. What is used to deal with anarchy?
    The balance of power
  43. Realist members emphasize _______-______ mechanisms.
    self-help
  44. Liberal members emphasize collective _____ and _______.
    action; security
  45. A definition of international law: " An association of ______ established by and based upon a ______, which pursues ______ aims and which has its own special organs to fullfill particular ____ within the ______.
    states; treaty; common; funtions; organization
  46. The End of the Nation-State System?
  47. 16__ to 19__s?
    48; 90
  48. Nation-states are powerful, but new actors may be... (4 things)
    • IGOs
    • NGOs
    • Individuals
    • Sub-national groups
  49. Since _________, nation-states shared power with new actors.
    Westphalia
  50. Nation-states have lost their monoploy on:(4 things)
    • Violence (terrorism)
    • Ideas
    • Communications
    • Wealth
  51. Many ideas are nor indigneous ideas, but _______ ones, such as ______.
    universal; fascism
  52. Who said that states have a monopoly over force?
    Weber
  53. What do states now share force with?
    IOs, terrorists
  54. Examples of IGOs
    • United Nations
    • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    • World Trade Organization (WTO)
    • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, the wealthy country clubs)
    • Group of 77 (G-77, a meeting group of economic developments)
    • European Union (EU)
    • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countris (OPEC)
  55. Examples of U.N. Organizations
    • U.N. High Comissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
    • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
    • International Court of Justice (ICJ)
    • International Labor Organization (ILO)
    • World Health Organization (WHO)
    • World Food Program (WFP)
    • U.N. Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
  56. Powers of International Organizations
  57. The membership of an international organization consists of the states that become members in accordance with ______ of the organization's ______.
    provisions; constitution
  58. The organization itself decides questions as to _________ of a member state and _____ of a state's membership.
    representation; succession
  59. International organizations cannot exercise ______ powers (as can ______ nations), and are governed by the principle of _______.
    general; sovereign; specialty
  60. Responsibilities of International Organizations
  61. When might the actions of a newly created organization carry responsibilities?
    When that organization has a legal personality.
  62. If the organization harms a member of the state, what should that organization do?
    Remedy that harm.
  63. Amd if a member state harms the organization,
    vice versa
  64. Dissolution of an international Organization
  65. Dissolution may be covered in the _______ instrument.
    constituent
  66. For example, being dissolved by 3/4 majority of the members.
  67. If dissolution is not covered in the constituent instrument, then the organization might be dissolved by a decision of its highest ______ body.
    representative
  68. Transfer of certain powers from states to ______ by ______.
    IGO; treaty
  69. For example, EEC, now the EU.
  70. International Organizations
  71. Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) are associations of _______ states established through ______ agreements.
    sovereign; formal
  72. Specialized IGOs with global membership include Interpol (International Criminal Police Comission), OPEC, and NATO.
  73. What does OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) do?
    Keep oil pricing, marketing, etc. of oil stable
  74. What does NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) act as? What was their major concern?
    The military organization of western power. Their major concern was stopping communism.
  75. Many IGOs: have ________ bodies;
    legislative
  76. dispute resolution _________ to resolve conflicts between member _______;
    mechanisms; states
  77. have ____ bodies to facilitate the IGO's operations.
    legislative
  78. Supranational Organizations
  79. Supranational organizations have power or influence that _______ national boundaries or governments.
    transcends
  80. Supranational Organizations have an _________ authority (comission);
    executive
  81. an ______ composed of states (council);
    organ
  82. a ______ Assembly;
    Parliamentary
  83. a Court of _______.
    Justice
  84. What would be an example of a supranational organization?
    The European Union
  85. General-Purpose regional IGOs
  86. This would include the European Union, the Organization of American States, and __________ __________(MNCs), such as General Motors, IBM, and Shell Oil.
    Multinational Corporations
  87. True/False: Some MNCs have budgets larger than developed countries. If false, why?
    False. Some have budgets larger than developing countries.
  88. True/False: Some of these MNCs take advantage of poorer countries. If false, why?
    True.
  89. International Organizations: Geneaology of the United Nations
  90. The U.N. is known for it's big-power _______-______.
    peace-keeping
  91. The _______ _______ ________ (1815-1822) reorgnized Europe after the __________ Wars and introduced the rules of the ________ _______ _______ game.
    Congress of Vienna; Napoleonic;  Balance of Power
  92. The _________ _________ _______ (1815-1914) between Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, et al. was a system of _________ after the Napoleonic Wars which ____________ peace until 1853.
    Concert of Europe; consultation; peace
  93. What idea began to develop from all of this?
    The idea of multilateralism.
  94. The Quantitative Expansion of IGOs
  95. Expansion during this century is a _______ trend.
    modern
  96. Reasons for expansion include increased _______ contact;
    international
  97. increased _________;
    interdependence
  98. expansion of __________ problems;
    transnational
  99. failure of state-centered systems to provide __________;
    security
  100. and effort of small states to gain strength through ______ action.
    joint
  101. Practical Barriers to IGOs
  102. Practical barriers to IGOs include _______ and _______;
    nationalism; sovereignty
  103. ________ objections;
    political
  104. concentration of ________;
    power
  105. and loss of __________ diversity.
    cultural
  106. When it comes to concentration of power, what do realists want?
    Realists want power concentrated to them.
  107. What do realists believe in to make them want concentrated power?
    Zero-sum game
  108. What is an explanation for the loss of cultural diversity?
    One culture is hegemonic and absorbs/dilutes another culture. This creates resentment among some people.
  109. League of Nations, 1919-1946
  110. What was the League of Nations designed to prevent?
    Another world war.
  111. The prevent wars throught the use of: (4 things)
    • Arbitration
    • Disarmament
    • Open Diplomacy
    • Collective Security
  112. What is the irony behind the League of Nations?
    President Woodrow Wilson was the architect of the the League (14 points); however, the U.S. was not a member.
  113. Why did the U.S. not joing it?
    The treaty was not ratified by the Senate.
  114. In the League of Nations, who could block action?
    Any member.
  115. Who violated all of these treaties?
    Hitler.
  116. General Assembly
  117. The General Assembly is a _______ for members to deliver their _______. Resolutions have no _________ unless states are commited to using ______, which most states are not.
    podium; speeches; teeth; force
  118. The General Assemby: had ____ members in 2006;
    192
  119. is a ______ for discussing ______ issues;
    forum; global
  120. has a membership from which half are from _____ and ______;
    Asia; Africa
  121. have budget disputes over ________ payments;
    delinquent
  122. membership which expands with _______-_______;
    de-colonization
  123. and an increase in _____ voting.
    bloc
  124. The post-Cold War era increasingly _______ the General Assembly as __________ shifts back to the Security Council.
    marginalized; power
  125. Present Voting Rules in the U.N. General Assembly
  126. For each member, there is _____ vote.
    one
  127. Certain categories require ______ vote.
    2/3
  128. Otherwise, it's a ______ _______.
    simple majority
  129. Possible Options for a New International Organization?
  130. These options include a consensus, votes based on ________, votes based on financial contributions to the ________, and whether or not we should create a ________ international organization.
    • population
    • budget
    • bicameral
  131. Voting in the General Assemnbly - Article 18
  132. Article 18 states that: each member of the General Assembly should have ____ vote;
    one
  133. and that decisions of the General Assembly on important questions shall be made by a _______ majority of the members present and voting.
    2/3
  134. These important questions shall include: recommendations with respect to the maintenance of international _______ and _______;
    peace; security
  135. the election of the non-permanent members of the ________ ________;
    Security Council
  136. the admission of new members to the ________ ________;
    United Nations
  137. the _______ of the rights and privileges of membership, the ________ of members.
    suspension; expulsion
  138. Security Council
  139. The Security Council: organizes and authorizes ______ ________;
    collective security
  140. has ______ permanent members with _____ power;
    5; veto
  141. can establish _______ forces;
    peacekeeping
  142. can authorize _______;
    war
  143. and serves as a ______ forum.
    negotiation
  144. Who are the 5 permanent members with veto power?
    • France
    • Britain
    • Russia
    • China
    • U.S.
  145. True/False: If any resolution is vetoed by any of these countires, the resolution is dead.
    True.
  146. There are also _____ temporary members, each serving ______ years.
    10; 2
  147. What is an example of the Security Council establishing peacekeeping forces?
    The U.N. forces on the Lebanese-Israeli borders.
  148. What wars were authorized by the Security Council?
    The second Gulf War and curren Libyan operations
  149. During Cold War, inactive due to veto
  150. As such, for the Security Council, there was: a development of ____________;
    peacekeeping
  151. the use of third-party military forces drawn from _____-________ members of the Security Council;
    non-permanent
  152. preventing ________ from escalating;
    conflicts
  153. securing ________, patrolling ________, and maintaining _______-________
    borders; demarcation; cease-fires
  154. respondting to _____ wars and ______ unrest;
    civil; domestic
  155. activities include verifying troop ________, conducting and supervising _____, and aiding civil ________ to insure law and order.
    withdrawals; elections; administration
  156. UN Peacekeeping: Failure in Rawanda
  157. There was failure when it came to peackeeping in Rawanda because: there was too small of a ________ to prevent genocide;
    contingent
  158. and request for additional ______ was denied.
    troops
  159. True/False: There were no attempts establish humanitarian protection zones. If false, why?
    False. The U.N. tried to establish humanitarian protection zones.
  160. Gulf War II and Iraq Occupation
  161. In the (year) Gulf War, the Security Councial authorized members to "use all necessary means", leading to _______ action by _______ coalitions under ____ command.
    1991; military; multinational; U.S.
  162. In (year), during the Iraq War, the Security Council was _______, so the U.S. did not seek formal _____ for the use of force;
    2003; divided; authorization
  163. A _____ veto was feared.
    French
  164. Secretariat and Secretary general
  165. What is The Secratariat?
    An international staff working in duty stations around the world.
  166. The Secratariat carries out the day-to-day work of the ________ ______ and administers ____ and _____ laid down by them.
    United Nations; programs; policies
  167. The Secratariat has a staff of about ______, and is headquartered in ______ _____.
    8,900; New York
  168. What is at the head of The Secretariat?
    The Secretary-General.
  169. The Secretary-General is appointed by the _______ _____ on the recommendation of the _____ _______.
    General Assembly; Security Council
  170. True/False: The Secretary-General serves a five-year term. If false, why?
    False. The SG serves a five-year renewable term.
  171. Secretary Council: Need for Reform
  172. The problem with the Security Council is that permanent members do not represent _____/______ diversity and do not include major ______ states having ______ power.
    geographic/regional; donor; economic
  173. The solutions to this problem includes the increasing the number of permanent members on Security Council to include ______ and _____ (major contributors) and to include major ______ powers (India,Brazil, Nigeria)
    Germany; Japan; regional
  174. The Politics of Security Council Reform
  175. The questions and considerations regarding Security Council Politics: How many should be added to the Council?
    This number needs to balance representativeness vs. efficiency.
  176. Who should be represented?
    For every seat there are multiple contenders, such as India vs. Pakistan, Brazil vs. Argentina
  177. Should the new members have the veto?
    Current members will not give up the right to veto, and too many states having the right to veto will lead to a stalemate.
  178. Ban Ki-moon, Secretary General
  179. Moon has little power to act _____/_____ of SC/GA, meaning he has an _____ role.
    SC/GA; impartial
  180. International Court of Justice
  181. Where does the World Court meet?
    At the Hague
  182. (#) justices serveing(#)-year terms are selected by the General Assembly and Security Council
    15; 9
  183. What does the ICJ do with courses brought to it?
    Hears them.
  184. What do they provide at the request of the General Assembly and Security Council?
    They provide advisory opinions.
  185. True/False: The ICJ initiates proceedings. If false, why?
    False. Only states initiate proceedings.
  186. What limits the court's effectiveness?
    State sovereignty.
  187. Punishing States who do not comply with International Law
  188. Punishments for states who do not comply with international law includes: issuing ______ protests;
    diplomatic
  189. initiating ________;
    reprisals
  190. threatening to enforce ______, _______, and _______;
    boycotss; embargoes; sanctions
  191. using ______ force.
    military
  192. NGOs combine in four ways:
  193. ______ NGOs;
    International
  194. ______ networks and ______ networks;
    Advocacy; governance
  195. _______ actors getting _____ recognition
    transnational; UN
  196. NGOs
  197. True/False: NGOs include individuals and institutions.
    True.
  198. How are NGOs distinguished from IGOs?
    It is an international organization consisting of non-governmental representatives and individuals.
  199. True/False: NGOs have international legal status. If false, why?
    False. NGOs have no international legal status.
  200. With no international legal status, NGOs do not enter into ______ or other international ______, although they might ______ such agreements.
    treaties; agreements; promote
  201. Diversified groups are: (3 things)
    • Local
    • National
    • Transnational
  202. NGOs support base are: (2 things)
    • Private
    • Part government-sponsored
  203. NGO membership is: (2 things)
    • Mass/popular based
    • Closed
  204. What were the increasing influence and numbers of NGOs enhanced by?
    The end of the Cold War.
  205. The increasing influence and numbers have lead to: (3 things)
    • Concern with global issues
    • Communications revolution
  206. Various Functions/roles of NGOs
  207. The various functions and rules of NGOs includes: advocating certain ___________;
    policies
  208. offering alternative channels of political ____________;
    participation
  209. mobilizing mass _______ support;
    public
  210. distributing crtical _________ which should have been provided by states;
    assistance
  211. monitorization of _____ and of state ________.
    norms; practices
  212. What are some examples of NGOs distributing critical assistance that should have been provided by states?
    Hezzbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in Gaza
  213. True/False: When it comes to the monitoring of norms and of state practices, in a few unusual cases, NGOs take the place of states.
    True
  214. Another function of NGOs is that primary actors are at the ___________ level in mobilizing individuals to act.
    grassroots
  215. NGOs reliance on soft power
  216. NGOs have _________ information, expertise, and __________ authority.
    credible; moral
  217. True/False: NGOs are politically independent. If false, why?
    False. They are politically independent most of the time.
  218. True/False: NGOs influence state behavior. If false, why?
    True.
  219. NGOs influence state behavior by initiating formal, legally binding _________.
    action
  220. Limits of NGOs
  221. The limits of NGOs include: a lack of ________ forms of power;
    traditional
  222. not having _______ or _______ forces;
    military; police
  223. not being able to command _________;
    obedience
  224. having limited _______ resources;
    economic
  225. Having limited economic resources leads to NGOs being dependent on _______.
    donors
  226. How do NGOs get donors?
    They have to compete for them.
  227. NGOs in History
  228. NGOs in history includes: anti-_______ groups in the late 1780s;
    slavery
  229.  ____ groups in the 1800s;
    peace
  230. the International Committee of the ____ _______- for humanitarian treatment;
    Red Cross
  231. and international ________ groups.
    labor
  232. When was there an explosion in number of NGOs?
    After 1970.
  233. What are some examples of humanitarian NGOs? (3 examples)
    • Red Cross
    • Amnesty International
    • Greenpeace
  234. NGO Power: Weaknesses
  235. Weakness of NGOS include: _____ groups working at _______ purposes;
    groups; cross
  236. no consistent source of ________;
    funds
  237. and legitimacy comprised by lack of _________.
    accountability
  238. Federalism and roots of war
  239. War is caused by individual states exercising _______.
    sovereignty
  240. Peace will be achieved if states transfer sovereignty to a higher _______ body.
    federal
  241. In a federal system, states will be joined together and soverignty transferred to the _______.
    collectivity
  242. In a federal system, the root cause of war has been _________.
    eliminated
  243. Functionalism
  244. War is caused by _______ deprivation.
    economic
  245. Economic disparity cannot be solved in a system of ___________ states.
    independent
  246. New _____ units should be created to solve specific economic problems.
    functional
  247. People will develop habits of _______, which will spill over from economic _______ to political _________.
    cooperation; cooperation; cooperation
  248. In the long run, economic disparities will ______ and war will be ________.
    lessen; eliminated
  249. Weakness of the two theories
  250. Federalists: believe states will not accept diminishing _________.
    sovereignty
  251. This is because the concern over who gets control is ______, and it is unclear if war can be ________.
    controversial; averted
  252. True/False: Funcitonalism states that economic disparity is the main cause of war. If false, why?
    False. It states that ecenomic disparity may not be the cause of war.
  253. True/False: Functionaism also states that cooperation may not spill over to other issues. If false, why?
    True.
  254. Human Rights
  255. Defining Human Rights
  256. What is the definition of human rights? (2 definitions)
    Rights that belong to an individual as a consequence of being human; basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitiled.
  257. Human rights often include the right to _____ and _____;
    life; liberty
  258. freedom of _________ and ________;
    thought; expression
  259. and ______ before the law.
    equality
  260. Human rights are conceived of as _________; they apply to all human beings everywhere, and and as a fundamental base, refer to essential or basic human ______.
    universal; needs
  261. Human rights are divided into three types
  262. What is the first one associated with?
    The Enlightenment.
  263. What aspects of the Enlightnment?
    The English, American, and French revolutions, including the rightsto life and liberty and the rights to freedom of speech and worship.
  264. What does the second type focus on?
    Economic, social, and cultural rights.
  265. It is associated with revolts against unregulated _____________.
    capitalism
  266. This includes the right to ______ and the right to an ________.
    work; education
  267. What is the third type associated with?
    Decolonization
  268. Political and economic aspirations of least developed countries after WWII included ________ rights, _________ self-determination and _______ development.
    collective; political; economic
  269. Human Rights influenced by:
  270. Universal Declaration of ___________ ___________ in 1948;
    Human Rights
  271. Treaties and agreements under the auspices of the _______ _________;
    United Nations
  272. Is reflected in the _________ _______ (1215)
    Magna Carta
  273. Declaration of ___________ (1776);
    Independence
  274. The ______ Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)
    French

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