Chemistry 3719 Chapter 1

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Chemistry 3719 Chapter 1
2011-08-26 12:21:16
YSU Organic Chemistry

Chemistry 3719
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  1. Give two constitutional isomers with the formula C3H7Br
    CH3CH2CH2Br and CH3CH(Br)CH3
  2. Give the approximate bond angles found in H2O, NH3, and CH4
    105o, 107o, 109.5o
  3. Give the approximate bond angles for sp, sp2, and sp3 hybrid C
    180o, 120o, 109.5o
  4. Provide the definitions of a Bronsted-Lowry acid and base
    A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor; the base is a proton acceptor
  5. When NaOH and CH3OH are mixed, will Keq be >>1, <<1, or ~1?
    Keq ~1 (similar acid strengths, H2O and CH3OH both have pKa ~16)
  6. Give approximate pKa values for CH3CH3, CH3NH2, CH3CH2OH
    ~60, ~36, ~16
  7. Why are carboxylic acids (pKa ~5) stronger acids than alcohols (pKa ~16)?
    Mostly because the anion formed from the carboxylic acid is stabilized through resonance delocalization
  8. Rank the following in order of increasing acid strength: HI, CH3OH, CH4, CH3NH2
    CH4 (pKa ~60) < CH3NH2 (pKa ~36) < CH3OH (pKa ~16) < HI (pKa ~-10)
  9. Give approximate electronegativity values for C, O, Cl, and H
    C ~2.5, O ~3.5, Cl ~3.0, H ~2.1
  10. Which of the following bonds will have significant dipoles: H-H, O-H, H-Cl, C-H ?
    O-H (E.N. of 3.5 and 2.1) and H-Cl (E.N. of 2.1 and 3.0)
  11. Give charges for the following species: CH4, :NH3, :CH3, CH3
    CH4 (neutral), :NH3 (neutral), :CH3 (negative), CH3 (positive)
  12. Indicate which type of bonds (ionic, covalent, or both) will be found in the following molecules: NaOH, CH3CH3, LiOCH3, H2O, NH4Cl
    NaOH (ionic & covalent); CH3CH3 (covalent); LiOCH3 (ionic & covalent), H2O (covalent), NH4Cl (ionic & covalent)
  13. Give definitions for a Lewis acid and Lewis base
    Lewis acid = electron acceptor; Lewis base = electron donor
  14. When CH3Li and CH3NH2 are mixed, will Keq be ~1, >1, or <1?
    K > 1 (pKa of CH3NH2 ~36; pKa of CH4 ~60)
  15. When CH3NHLi and CH3OH are mixed, which side of the reaction is favoured, left or right?
    Right hand side will be favoured since CH3NHLi is a much stronger base than CH3OLi
  16. Give the detailed electron configuration of carbon
    C: 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1
  17. What word describes orbitals of the same energy?
  18. Which electrons are held more tightly, 2s or 3s, and why?
    2s since they are closer to the positive nucleus
  19. What are the hybridization patterns of the C atoms in CH4, H2C=O, and CH3OH?
    CH4 = sp3, H2C=O is sp2; CH3OH is sp3
  20. How many lone pairs are present on the non-hydrogen atom(s) in H2O, CH3CH3, and CH3NH2 ?
    2 on O in H2O; 0 on C in CH3CH3; 0 on C and 1 on N in CH3NH2