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What is the causative agent of rabies? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are the clinical signs?
- Transmission is through saliva; typically a bite
- Post-mortem examination of the brain
- Early signs include muscle tremors, shifting leg lameness, depression, colic, choke, decreased appetite
What is the incubation period of rabies? What happens when clinical signs of rabies are present?
- 3 weeks to 3 months
- Death w/in 10 days
Name the 3 forms of rabies and briefly describe clinical signs of each one.
- Furious form: possible behavior changes, fear, rage, hyperexcitability, progressive ataxia & paralysis, death w/in 2-4 days
- Dumb form: extreme depression, decreased appetite, fever >103oF, peripheral nerve signs, progressive pharyngeal paralysis, inability to swallow
- Paralytic form: flaccid tetraparesis or paraparesis, unexplained shifting leg lameness, neuro signs, recumbancy & death w/in 10 days
What is the cause of anthrax? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are the clinical signs?
- Bacteria Bacillus anthracis
- Transmitted by ingestion of contaminated soil (horse, cattle), ingestion of infected meat (cat, dog), ingestion, inhalation or skin contact (humans)
- Blood sample using aseptic technique
- No signs or syptoms then begin staggering, become dyspneic, trembling, convulsions & death
What is the incubation period of cattle suspected of anthrax contamination? How does the carcass present itself?
- 3-7 day incubation period
- Carcass is absent of rigor mortis, contains dark blood that oozes from the mouth, nose and anus, marked bloating, rapid decomposition
Why is it essential to never cut open an animal suscpected of anthrax?
Bacteria exposed to oxygen form very resistant spores that infect the ground forever, and they can be inhaled and infect the person whom opens the carcass. The spores are uneffected by extreme temperatures, disinfectants, and desiccation.
Is anthrax a reportable disease?
What is the cause of brucellosis? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are the clinical signs?
- Brucellosis abortus
- Ingestion of fetal fluids, membranes or milk
- Dx w/ blood agglutination test
- Abortion, retained placenta, endometritis, infertility, orchitis, and epididymitis
When is a Bang vaccine (RB51) given?
When the heard tests negative for brucellosis, heifers <1 yr of age are vaccinated and receive a permanent ear tag and tattoo.
What is the imprtance of eradicating Brucellosis?
Brucellosis causes late term abortion in cattle and impaired fertility in the bull, which decreases productivity and thus the economy. The zoonotic concern is that the organism is shed in milk, which is a human health hazard.
What is the cause of tuberculosis? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are the clinical signs?
- Mycobacterium bovis
- Inhalation upon necropsy and ingestion of non-pasteurized milk of infected animals
- ID injection of tuberculin in caudal tail fold
- Mild respiratory signs such as soft, moist, chronic cough; dyspnea, tachypnea
When is an animal considered to be free of TB?
After 2 consecutive years of negative tests on all cattle in the heard
What is the causative agent for Johne's disease? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are the clinical signs?
- Mycobacterium avium, subspecies paratuberculosis
- Fecal-oral, in utero, ingestion through milk
- Silent, subclinical, advanced clinical, profuse watery diarrhea and weight loss
What does Johne's disease cause in humans?
What is the causative agent for Cryptosporidium? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are clinical signs?
- Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum
- Fecal direct/float
- Diarrhea & death despite supportive care
What is the causative agent for calf enteritis? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are the clinical signs?
- Bacterial agents: E.coli, Clostridium perfringens C & D, Salmonella
- Viral agents: coronavirus, rotovirus, BVD
- Protozoal agents: coccidia (emeria), cryptosporidium
- Fecal-oral, fecal aerosol & repiratory aerosol
- Clinical signs
- Diarrhea & dehydration
What is the causitive agent of BVD? How is it transmitted? How is it diagnosed? What are clinical signs?
- Pestivirus of Flaviviridae family
- In utero, ingestion
- Virus isolation, ELISA, PCR, immunohistochemistry
- Fever, depression, decreased milk production, anorexia, lesions on feet/hooves from strain, oral ulceration, diarrhea, dehydration, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
- PI calves are ill thrift and chronic illness once colostral antibodies are used up
How does BVD persistently infect (PI) cattle?
The virus is transmitted in utero, which does not allow the calfs immune system to build antibodies against it. This causes the virus to become normal flora, therefore resulting in persistent infection
What are the 4 stages in the estrous cycle? Briefly describe each stage.
- Proestrus: estrogen prepares uterus for breeding, follicle growth occurs
- Estrus: most receptive time of cycle, ovulatory follicle present, high estrogen levels, ends w/ ovulation
- Metestrus: corpus luteum stage, cervix closes, egg in fallopian tube, no follicular growth, uterus thick for implantation of egg
- Diestrus: main hormone is progesterone, fertile copulation sends signal to maintain progesterone levels and corpus luteum, no fertilization decreases the amount of progesterone, lyses the CL and a new follicle begins to grow
What is the 5th stage of the estrous cycle? Briefly describe it.
Anestrus: period of no activity due to pregnancy
What are some complications associated with anestrus?
Pyometra, luteal cyst from CL becoming stuck, follicular cyst
What is the hormone produced by the hypothalamus which causes the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland?
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
What hormone is produced from the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates ovulation, CL formation and progesterone secretion?
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
What hormone produced from the anterior pituitary stimulates follicular development and estradiol synthesis?
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
What hormone is produced from the granulosa cells of the follicle influences sexual behavior, GnRH, elevated secretory activity and inhances uterine motility?
What hormone produced from the CL stimulates endometrial secretion, inhibits GnRH and reproductive behavior, and maintains pregnancy?
What hormone produced by the uterine endometrium causes luteolysis, promotes uterine tone and contraction?
Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)
What type of estrous cycle do cattle have?
When do male and female cattle reach puberty?
7 - 18 months
At what age is a heifer typically bred?
How long is the estrous cycle of cattle?
How long is estrus?
When does ovulation occur in cattle?
12 - 18 hours after estrus ends
How long is the gestation period of a cow?
283 days (about 9 months)
What type of placenta do cattle have?
What are the attachment sites of the cotyldonary placenta called? What are te parts of is structure?
Placentomes composed of cotyledon on fetal side and caruncle on maternal side
What is the typical birth weight range for cattle? How many calves can a cow carry successfully?
When do calves wean?
- Dairy: 3 months
- Beef: 4 - 6 months
What are good methods of determining estrus in cattle?
- Altered bulls
- Cows/steers given androgen
- Chalk markers or paint
- Marking harness
What is a gomer?
Altered cow that has undergone reefing, which causes the penis to be directed to the side when they mount the cow
How do extenders benefit the AI process?
- Allow for more inseminations from one collection
- Maintain fertility longer
- Protect sperm from temp or pH changes
- Maintain viability longer
What are benefits of AI?
- Decreases spread of disease, injury and bull mantenance
- Allows for synchronization of cows
- Increases superior genetics
What type of penis does the bull have? How does it function?
- Fibroelastic type
- Hydrostatic pressure of sigmoid flexure causes straightening, and loss of pressure and contraction of retractor muscles causes retraction
What are the accessory sex glands of the bull and how many are there?
- Seminal vesicles (2)
- Prostate gland (1)
- Bulbourethral glands (2)
What are the methods of semen collection? Which is most commonly used?
- Artificial vagina
- Electro ejaculator (most common)
- Manual stimulation
What are normal values of bull semen?
- Volume: 1-15ml (5ml)
- Concentration: 300-2,500 million/ml
- Total sperm: 4 - 5 billion
- Progressive motility: >30%
- Morphology: >70% normal
How is AI performed?
In standing position, sperm deposited just beyond the cervix through rectovaginal method
Describe the process of embryo transfer.
- 1. Cows are synchronized by diving prostaglandins which lyse the CL
- 2. Donor is superovulated w/ FSH, GnRH or HCG
- 3. Ovulation induced
- 4. Insemination @ 12 - 18 hours
- 5. Embryo collection 6 - 8 days after AI
- 6. ID & select embryos
- 7. Embryo transfer
When are cattle checked for pregnancy?
If a cow is still open after after breeding season, what happens to them?
They are sent to market
How is pregnancy determined and when can an ultrasound to determine the sex be preformed?
- Rectal palpation @ 16 - 24 days
- 55 days
What percentage of first-calf heifers are expected to have dystocia? What is the percent in mature cows?
_______ is an important factor in decreasing dystocia rates.
Describe the ideal calving area.
Clean, dry & provide protection from weather
How mant stages of parturition are there?
Briefly describe the stages of parturition.
- Stage 1: labor, restlessness, lack of interest in food, kicking at belly and straining
- Stage 2: delivery, anywhere from 30 minutes to 4 hours, if no progression after one hour seek assistance
- State 3: delivery of placenta, 4 - 6 hrs, seek assistance if not passed in 24 hrs
What are signs associated with parturition?
- Hind quarter muscle/ligament softening
- Swelling of the vulva
- Thick mucus discharge from vulva
- Enlargement of the udder
- Distension of the teats
- Seperation from herd
- Slight decrease in rectal temp
Feeding preparturient cows at 11am-12pm and 9:30-10pm will cause what percent of cows to calve between 7am and 7pm?
What is the normal presentation of the calf during parturition?
Anterior presentation: foreleg hooves facing down and head following at the level of the carpus
Malpositioning of the calf can be performed in a dystocia as long as the cow is what?
When would a C-section be performed?
Too large of a calf
What is the process of correcting a dystocia called? Describe what is done.
Mutation (Manipulation) and Traction: cow first restrained, tail is tied, perineum prep (clean hand, dirty hand; remove watches and jewelry; use gloves and TONS of OB lube)
What are the tools that are used for manipulation and traction?
- Obstetrical chains
- Head snare
- Eye hooks
- Calf jack
Name this tool. What is it used for?
Obstetrical chains used to assist with dystocia
Name this tool. What is it used for?
Head snare used to pull on calf during a dystocia
Name this tool. What is it used for?
Eye hook to assist in removing a calf during dystocia
Name this tool. What is it used for?
Calf jack to assist in dystocia
What factors might cause manipulation in dystocias to be unsuccessful?
- Fetus/pelvis incompatibility
- Deceased, bloated calf
- Congenital defects (contracted limbs, scoliosis)
What position is a cesarean section performed in?
Standing with local/regional nerve blocks
What is a fetotomy?
Removal of the fetus from the uterus in parts
In order, what are the steps to neonatal care?
- Check oxygenation/pulse & confirm patent airway
- Regulate temperature (>97oF)
- Care for the umbilical cord & umbilicus w/ an antiseptic such as iodine, betadine, or chlorhexidine
- Nutrition (ensure calf is nursing)
- Bonding of cow & calf
- Passage of meconium should be w/in 24hrs
- Adequacy of passive transfer of antibodies
- Physical exam (check for atresia coli, atresia recti, atresia ani)
When should a calf be sternal?
W/in 30 minutes
When should a calf be standing &/or trying to stand?
W/in 30 minutes
When should the calf be nursing?
W/in 80 minutes on average w/ dairy cattle taking slightly longer
How much colostrum should be consumed w/in 12 - 24 hrs of calving?
10 - 15% body weight
What is an adequate SG of colostrum given to a calf?
When tubing a calf, what volume of colostrum do you not want to excede?
What is Freemartin?
When a cow gives birth to male-female twins. Androgens inhibit female genitalia formation.
What is the ideal amount of IgG to be absorbed by the calf?
What is the ideal glucose level in the calf?
90 - 120 mg/dl
A calf is considered hypoglycemic when the blood glucose level is less than what?
What is a common dz in calves <4 days old? What causes this dz?
- Bacteria, virus, protozoa, nutrition, stress
What is a common dz in calves >4weeks old? What causes this?
- Respiratory complications
- Stress & environment, virus, bacteria
What bacteria causes tetanus and how does this bacteria typically infect the animal?
Clostridium tetani typically infects animals through a deep penetrating wound, but may also infect the host post foaling, post castration, and through an infected umbilicus
What are the clnical signs associated with tetanus?
Muscle rigidity, 3rd eye prolapse, sensitivity to sound, respiratory paralysis
What is the causative agent for dermatophytosis?
Trychophyton verrucosum or Microsporum spp.
Clinical signs of dermatophytosis include what? How do you diagnose it?
- Encrusted circular lesions of thickened skin
- Clinical signs and dermatophyte culture
How is dermatophytosis treated?
Clears spontaneously or antifungal drugs
What is the causitive agent for lumpy jaw and what symptoms does it cause?
Actinomyces bovis causes a mass formation on the mandible or maxillary jaw and weight loss
Is lumpy jaw tx usually effective? How can it be tx?
No, tx by antibiotics and debridement
What is the causative agent for wooden tongue? What are the clinical signs associated with it?
- Actinobacillus lignieresii
- Abscessation of the tongue and swelling of the ventral jaw
How is wooden tongue tx?
What is the causative agent of malignant edema? What are clinical signs that will be seen with this disease?
- Clostridium septicum
- Edematous lesions, gas lesions, weight loss, fever and toxemia
What is the tx for malignant edema?
- Prevention w/ vaccine
What is the causitive agent of blackleg? What clinical signs are associated with this dz?
- Clostridium chauvoei
- Dead animals, necrotic muscle, distinct rancid smell
What is the tx for blackleg?
- Prevention w/ vaccine!
What is the causative agent of mastitis? What are the clinical signs associated w/ mastitis?
- Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureusSwelling & redness
How can mastitis be diagnosed?
- Strip cup examination
- Somatic cell counts
- California mastitis test, wisconsin mastitis test
- Milk C&S
How is mastitis tx?
- Thorough milking out
What is the causative agent for foot rot?
- Dichelobacter nodosus
- Fusobaterium necrophorum
- Corynebacterium pyogenes
What are the clinical signs associated with foot rot?
How is foot rot treated?
- Topical anitibacterial agents
- Foot bath
- Management (hoof trimming, foot bath, ground condition)
What is the causative agent of foot and mouth dz?
What are the clinical signs of foot and mouth dz?
Fever, severe erosion of the oral mucosa, lameness due to coronary band lesions, death
How is foot and mouth dz transferred?
- Aerosalization and fomites
- Highly infectious & reportable
What is the causative agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis and how is it transmitted?
- Moraxella bovisTransmitted by direct contact, fomites and flies
What are clinical signs associated with pink eye?
- Corneal opacity/ulceration
What is the tx for pink eye?
- Fly control (ear tags w/ 10% permethrin AU)
What is the causative agent for shipping fever?
- Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolyticaP. multicida (normal flora of upper resp system)
What are the clinical signs associated with shipping fever?
- Low head carriage
- Wet cough
- Open-mouth breathing
- Weight loss
What is the tx for shipping fever?
- Antimicrobial therapy
- Prevention w/ pasteurella toxoid vaccine
What is the causative agent of bovine respiratory syncytial virus?
RNA virus from Paramyxovirus family
What are clinical signs associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus?
- Inreases RR
- Nasal & ocular discharge
How is bovine respiratory syncytial virus diagnosed and treated?
- Dx: virus isolation & paired samples
- Tx: vaccines, tx secondary bacterial infections & support
What is the causitive agent for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis?
Bovine herpes virus 1
What are the clinical signs associated with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis?
- Ocular discharge
- Mucopurulent nasal discharge
- Systemic infections
How is infectious bovine rhinotracheitis treated?
Vaccine & treatment of secondary infections
How is IBR spread? Who is it most likely to kill if they become infected?
- Bulls can spread the disease even w/o active lesions on genitals
What are the causative agents of metritis?
- Actinomyces (Corynebacterium) pyogenesStreptococci
- Gram-negative anaerobes
What are the clinical signs of metritis?
- Vaginal discharge
How is metritis diagnosed and how can it be treated?
- Uterine biopsy & culture
- Tx w/ antibiotics
What is the causitive agent of trichomoniasis and how is it spread?
- Trichomonas foetusVenereal (spread through semen)
Clinical signs of trichomoniasis include what?
- EED (Early embryonic death)
How is trichomoniasis diagnosed and treated? Should these cases be reported?
- Dx: semen culture
- Tx: separation of cows >5months pregnant, culling infected bulls & replacing them w/ virgin bulls
- Yes, trichomoniasis is reportable
What is the causative agent of leptospirosis and how is it transmitted to the animal? Is it zoonotic?
- L. pomona, L. hardj, L. grippotyphosa
- Transmission through urine
- It is zoonotic
What are clinical signs of leptospirosis?
- Abortion storms
- Still births
- Loss of milk production
- Weak neonates
- Reduced fertility
How is leptospirosis diagnosed and treated? Is there prevention?
- Dx: paired serum samples, histopathology, necropsy
- Tx: vaccination & antibiotics
- Preventative vaccine
What is the causative agent for vibriosis? How is it transmitted?
- Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis or C. fetus
What are the clinical signs associated with vibriosis?
- Embryonic death
- Extended calving season
- Irregular estrous cycles
How is vibriosis diagnosed and treated?
- Dx: culture
- Tx: prevention w/ vaccines & abx-treated semen
What is BSE? What is it caused by?
- Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a progressive, fatal, neurologic dz
- Caused by a prion
How long does it typically take for an animal to reach a terminal state once infected with BSE?
What are the clinical signs of BSE?
- Nose licking
- Teeth grinding
- Tossing head
- Exaggerated external stimuli
- Low head carraige
- Muscle tremors
What does the prion in BSE do to the CNS?
Spongiosis (holes) of the brain
What is thought to be the cause of BSE?
Mammalian derived proteins added to the diet
What is the causative agent of listeriosis?
What are the clinical signs of listeriosis?
- Facial nerve paralysis
- Tongue hanging from mouth
- Drooping ears
What is the tx for listeriosis? How can it be prevented?
- Penicillin & NSAIDS
- Proper management of silage feed prevents listeriosis
What vaccines are commonly given to heifers and when are they given?
- Brucellosis in calfhood (4 - 12 months)
- IBR/BVD before weaning & breeding
- Campylobacteriosis, lepto & trichomoniasis before breeding
What vaccined are commonly given to cows and when should they be given?
- IBR/BVD boosted before breeding
- Campy, lepto & trichomoniasis each yr before breeding
What vaccines are commonly given to bulls and when are they given?
- IBR/BVD in calfhood & boosted before breeding
- Campy, lepto & trichomoniasis each yr before breeding
What vaccines (other then the commonly used ones) can be given to a heifer/cow prior to calving to prevent diseases such as scours in the newborn calf?
- E. coli
- Clostridial dz
When should calves be given a Rotavirus and Coronavirus vaccine?
If a problem exists in the herd