Rad last test

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  1. What is the latent image and when is it obtained?
    The image is not visible before processing and it is obtained after the film is developed.
  2. If the developer temperature goes up then the development time goes _____.
  3. How long must film be fixed?
    2X developing time (minimum of 10 minutes)
  4. What is the optimum time and temperature for manual processing
    5 minutes at 68 degrees
  5. What two things does the developer do?
    • Softens and swells the emulsion
    • Reduces the exposed silver halide crystals into black metallic silver
  6. What does the rinse after development do?
    Stops development
  7. What developer chemical is called the developer agent (reducing agent) that is sensitive to temperature?
  8. What is the developer chemical that is called the developer agent (reducing agent) that isĀ NOT sensitive to temperature?
  9. What chemical is called the activator?
    Sodium Carbonate
  10. What chemical is the preservative and is in both solutions?
    Sodium Sulfite
  11. What three things does the fixer do?
    • Stops further development
    • Removes unexposed (undeveloped) crystals
    • Shrinks and hardens the emulsion back up
  12. What chemical shrinks and hardens the emulsion?
    Potassium alum
  13. What is the fixing or clearing agent?
    Sodium thiosulfate or Sodium hyposulfate
  14. In which tank should the thermometer be placed?
  15. How long should films be in the final wash?
    20-30 minutes with manual
  16. What safelight can be used with a pan and other intra/extra oral films?
  17. What safelight can be used for intraoral films only?
  18. How far should the safelight be at a minimum from the counter?
    4 feet
  19. What three things determine the safety of the safelight?
    • 7-15 watt bulb
    • 4 feet away distance
    • Type of filter
  20. What is the sign of an exhausted developer?
    Thin and faded image
  21. What is the sign of an exhausted fixer?
    milkly, sticky residue
  22. Black marks on film can be caused by what?
    Fingernail indentations, bending, static, developer splashes
  23. Clear or light spots or marks on a radiograph are due to what?
    Fixer splashes, air bubbles, scratched emulsion, lead apron artifact.
  24. A herringbone pattern appear on a film if it is what?
    Placed in the oral cavity backwards
  25. Placing a film in the fixer first results in a _____ film.
  26. If a film is not immersed in the developer completely and then is immersed completely in the fixer what would the result be?
    Clear area where it was not immersed
  27. A film is immersed completely in the developer but not the fixer what would the result be?
    A dark area where it was not immersed
  28. Radiographs are caused by all except: temp of developer too cool, insufficient developing time, exhausted developer solution, and overexposure
  29. What causes film fog?
    Scatter radiation, light leaks, unsafe safelight
  30. What is the wrinkled appearance that occurs when a film goes from extreme temp to another?
  31. What is the recommended method for manually developing film?
    Time-temperature method
  32. What does the coin test monitor?
    • Safelight test
    • Result: no image of coin
  33. What does the stepwedge test monitor?
    Solutions and Machines
  34. What does the wire mesh test monitor?
    Intensifying screens
  35. What determines the life of the solutions?
    • Accuracy in prep
    • Freshness of solution
    • Cleaniness of tanks
    • Exposure to light
    • Temp of solutions
    • Size of film
  36. Where do you find information on storage, usage, and emptying?
  37. When replenishing solutions how much is added approximately?
    1 cup of developer and fixer
  38. Is there a rinse step in automatic film processing?
  39. Approximately how often should solutions be changed?
    Once a week
  40. Can the same solutions be used in both manual and automatic processing?
  41. What happens to film quality if not washed or fixed long enough?
    Film turns yellowish brown
  42. Film totally exposed to white light before developing will be what?
  43. Film that is unexposed will appear _____ after processing.
  44. A film that does not come into contact with the solutions will emerge _____.
  45. What causes dark stains?
    • Developer
    • Fluoride
    • Saliva
  46. A thin or light image on an x-ray film can be produced by what?
    • Underexposure
    • Underdevelopment
    • Cold developing solution
  47. What indicates that a radiograph was overexposured?
    Dark Image
Card Set:
Rad last test
2012-11-24 19:39:13
test VII

Film developer and errors
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