skin part 1.txt

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Author:
mhunger
ID:
185169
Filename:
skin part 1.txt
Updated:
2012-11-24 16:51:28
Tags:
integumentary
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Description:
integumentary #1
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  1. Integumentary system is comprised of:
    • skin
    • hair
    • nails
    • sweat and subcutaneous glands
    • blood vessels
    • sensory receptors
  2. Function of skin
    • protective shield against heat, light, injury and/or infection
    • regulates body temperature
    • stores water, fat and Vitamin D
    • senses painful and pleasant stimulation
  3. Skin consists of 3 layers:
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • subcutaneous
  4. Epidermis
    • outer layer or skin
    • stratified or layered squamous cell epithelial cells (continually sheds dead keratinocytes)
    • differentiated keratinocytes (produces keratin)
    • basal layer (continually divides)
    • basal cells (produce melanin to protect against sun rays)
  5. Dermis
    • middle layer of skin comprised of:
    • blood vessels
    • lymph vessels
    • hair follicles
    • sweat glands
    • fibroblasts
    • sensory receptors (pain and touch)
  6. Subcutaneous
    • deepest layer of skin
    • consists of a network of collagen and fat cells that help conserve body heat and protect organs from injury by acting as a "shock absorber"
  7. Diagnostic procedures for skin diseases
    • visual exam
    • blood and urine tests to exclude underlying disease
    • microscopic exam of skin scrapings
    • biopsy (punch, shave & exisional)
  8. Punch biopsy
    done with a round-shaped knife ranging in size from 1-8 mm
  9. Shave biopsy
    • also: incisonal
    • for removing a small sample of a potential tumor tissue
  10. Total excisional biopsy
    removal of an entire lump or suspicious area including normal tissue
  11. Skin lesion classifications
    • macule (freckle)
    • wheal (hive)
    • papule (pimple)
    • nodule (large papule)
    • vesicle (blister)
    • bulla (larger vesicle)
    • pustule (filled with pus)
    • ulcer (erosion)
    • eczema
    • psoriasis
    • fissure
  12. Epidermoid and pilar cysts
    • smooth, round lumps beneath the skin, usually harmless and self-contained
    • filled with air, infected fluids and/or sebum
    • usually asymptomatic
    • pain may occur with cyst found in genital skin folds or next to either finger or toe nails
  13. Treatment of epidermoid and pilar cysts
    • incise and drain cyst
    • oral antibiotics if infected
    • surgical excision
  14. Epidermoid cyst
    • formed from cells in epidermis and filled with sebum
    • affects ~1-5% of population
    • may occur due to injury or blocked hair follicles
    • may be asymptomatic; rupturing can result in significant discomfort
    • develop on face, neck, chest or upper back
  15. Risk factors for epidermoid cyst
    • age
    • gender (men 2x more likely than women)
    • history of acne
    • traumatic or crushing to the skin
  16. Pilar cyst
    • fluid-filled growth that forms from cells in the bottom of hair follicle
    • affects 5-10% of population
    • more common in middle-aged women
    • smooth and mobile
    • filled with keratin
    • may or may not be tender
    • usually occurs in clusters on the scalp
    • may proliferate forming pilar tumors that are usually benign; very rarely pilar cysts become cancerous
  17. Drug eruptions
    • adverse drug reactions manifest more often on the skin that any other organ system
    • ~2-5% of patients suffer from cutaneous drug reactions
    • may involve the entire body surface or a limited area
    • may appear as pink -to-red rashes, wheals, red patches and/or pustules
    • may also cause photosensitivity and/or anaphylaxis, shock or death
  18. Medications causing drug eruptions
    • antibiotics
    • NSAIDs
    • narcotic analgesics
    • anticonvulsants
    • psychotropic medications
    • diuretics
    • iodine

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