skin part 2.txt

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skin part 2.txt
2012-11-24 16:52:17

integumentary #2
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  1. Causative agents for bacterial skin infection
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Streptococcus pyrogenes
  2. Diagnosis of bacterial skin infection
    • visual exam
    • bacterial culture
  3. Treatment of bacterial skin infection
  4. Impetigo
    • acute, contagious skin infection
    • two clinical types
  5. Nonbullous impetigo
    • most common type
    • affects primarily face and extremities
    • starts as vesicle or pustule on reddened skin
    • after rupturing, leaves honey-colored crust
  6. Bullous impetigo
    • almost exclusively caused by S. aureus
    • starts as vesicle with clear, yellow fluid
    • after rupturing leaves golden-yellow crust
  7. Symptoms of impetigo
    • fever
    • enlarged lymph nodes
  8. Risk factors for impetigo
    • direct skin-to-skin contact with infected person
    • contact with fomites (contaminated bedding or clothing)
    • warm and humid weather
    • sports involving skin-to-skin contact
  9. Prevention of impetigo
    • frequent hand washing and daily bathing
    • prompt attention to minor wounds
  10. Erysipelas
    superficial skin infection
  11. Cellulitis
    deep infection extending into subcutaneous tissue
  12. Risk factors for erysipelas and cellulitis
    • circulatory problems
    • diabetes
    • trauma to the skin
    • infection usually appears on the face or legs and is generally swollen, bright red, hot and tender
  13. Prevention of erysipelas and cellulitis
    • prompt wound care
    • moisturization of skin
    • careful trimming of nails
  14. Folliculitis
    • superficial infection of hair follicles
    • characterized by erythema and follicular-based papules and pustules
    • treated with antibiotic soap
  15. Furuncle (boil)
    • deep infection of hair follicles
    • characterized by core becoming necrotic, liquefied and pus-filled
    • treated with application of moist heat, antiseptic soap, antibiotics and incision and drainage
  16. Carbuncle
    cluster of furuncles
  17. Herpes
    • viral skin infection
    • causes cluster of fluid-filled vesicles on the skin
  18. Herpes simplex type I
    • cold sores and fever blisters near mouth and lips
    • ~85% of population has antibody titer
    • burning or tingling may precede vesicular eruption
    • becomes dormant
    • reoccurance triggered by stimuli such as cold, flu, fever, sun, stress, trauma or immune response
  19. Diagnosis of Herpes simplex type I
    • visual examination
    • viral culture
    • testing for HSV-1 DNA
  20. Herpes simplex type II
    caused by herpes varicella zoster (chickenpox)
  21. Prevention of Herpes simplex type II
    varicella zoster vaccine
  22. Treatment of Herpes simplex type II
    • NSAIDs to reduce fever and pain
    • Histamine1 receptor antagonists to reduce itching
    • Antivirals to shorten length of illness
  23. Warts (verruca vulgaris)
    • small, usually painless growths on the skin caused by the human papillomavirus
    • HPV infects keratinocytes causing proliferation forming a benign neoplasm (epithelial hyperplasia)
    • has rough, keratinized surface that is dome-shaped and gray-brown in color
    • spread by direct contact
  24. Diagnosis of warts
    visual exam
  25. Common warts
    • usually appear on the hands
    • can appear anywhere
  26. Plantar warts
    found on soles of feet
  27. Flat warts
    general found on the face and forehead, also on arms and legs
  28. Filoform warts
    usually grow around the mouth, nose or beard area
  29. Periungual and subungual warts
    appear under and around the finger and toe nails
  30. Treatments for warts
    • OTC/prescription warts
    • immunotherapy
    • Gardasil vaccine
    • special cushions
    • electrocautery
    • cryosurgery
    • laser surgery