Medical Terminology: Chapter 16

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Medical Terminology: Chapter 16
2012-11-25 12:37:40
Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Endocrine System
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  1. Pituitary Gland
    • 1. Approximately the size of a pea
    • 2. Located at the base of the brain
    • 3. Divded into two lobes
    •        Anterior Lobe
    •        Posterior Lobe
  2. Growth Hormone (GH)
    regulates growth of the body
  3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    stimulates the adrenal Cortex
  4. Thyroid- Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    Stimulases the thyroid gland
  5. Gonadotropin Hormones
    Affect male and female reproductive systems
  6. Prolactin Releasing or Lactogenic Hormone (PRH)
    Promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy
  7. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water
  8. Oxytocin
    Stimulates uterine contractions during labor and postpartum
  9. Hypothalamus
    Located superior to the pituitary gland, secretes "releasing" hormone, functions to stimulate or inhibit the release of pituitary gland hormones
  10. Islets of Langerhands
    Clusters of endocrine tissue found throughout the pancreas, secretes hormones, Insulin and glucagon
  11. Thyroid
    largest endocrine gland, located in the neck below the larynx, produces hormones which require iodine for production; Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4)
  12. Parathyroid
    Four small bodies embedded in the posterior lobes of the thyroid gland, produces hormone parathormone (PTH)
  13. Islets of Langerhans
    Cllusters of endocrine tissue found throughout the pancreas, secretes hormones insulin and glucagon
  14. Adrenal Glands
    Paired glands, one above each kidney, outer portion is called the adrenal cortex
  15. aden/o
  16. adren/o, adrenal/o
    adrenal glands
  17. cortic/o
    cortex (outer layer of a body organ)
  18. endocrin/o
  19. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid gland
  20. pititar/o
    pititary gland
  21. thyroid/o, thyr/o
    thyroid gland
  22. acr/o
    extremities, height
  23. calc/i
  24. dips/o
  25. kal/i
  26. natr/o
  27. -drome
    run, running
  28. acromegaly
    enlargement of extremities and bones in face, hands and feet
  29. hypterthyroidism
    excessive thyroid gland activity, excessive secretion of thyroid hormones, signs and symptomes, weight loss, irritability, and heat intolerance
  30. hypothyroidism
    deficient thyroid gland activity, decreased secretion of thyroid hormones, signs and symptomes, weight gain, fatigue and cold intolerance
  31. hypopituitarism
    deficient pituitary gland activity, decreased secretion of one or more pituitary hormones which affect the target endocrine glands
  32. Panhypopituitarism
    state of total deficient pipuitary gland activity, decreased secretion of ALL pituitary hormones
  33. Acidosis
    Condition with avnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism
  34. Addison disease
    Chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex
  35. Cretinism
    Condition caused by congential absence or atrophy of the thyroid gland
  36. Cushing Syndrome
    Group of signs and symptomes attributed to excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal glands
  37. Diabetes insipidus (DI)
    decreased sectetion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by posterior lobe of pituitary gland
  38. Diabetes mellitus (DM)
    chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
  39. Gigantism
    Condition caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone by pituitary gland before puberty
  40. Goiter
    Enlargement of thyroid gland
  41. Graves Disease
    Disorder of thryoid gland
  42. Ketosis
    Condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus 
  43. Metabolic syndrome
    Group of signs and symptoms; Insulin resisitance, obesity with excessive fat around waist and abdomen, hypertension, hyperglycemia, elevated trigllycerides, low "good" HDL
  44. Myxedema
    Deficiency of thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4)
  45. Pheochromocytoma
    turmor of adrenal medulla
  46. Tetany
    condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms, result of low blood calcium
  47. Thyrotoxicosis
    condtion caused by excessive thyroid hormones
  48. Radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU)
    nuclear medicine scan, measures thyroid function
  49. Thyroid scan
    Nuclear medicine test, shows size, shape and function of thyroid gland, used to detect tumors an dnodules
  50. Fasting Blood sugar (FBS)
    blood test to determine amound of flucose at time of test, must be fasting 8-10 hours
  51. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C)
    blood test to measure amount of HbA1C
  52. Throxine level (T4)
    blood test to measure amount of thyroxine
  53. Thyroid-stimulating hormone level (TSH)
    blood test to measure amount of TSH, used to diagnose hypothyroidism
  54. Exophthalmos
    Abnormal protrusion of eyeball
  55. Hormone
    Chemical substance secreted by endocrine gland
  56. Isthmus
    Narrow strip of tissue that connects two larger parts in the body
  57. Metabolism
    Sum total of all chemical processes tha t take place in a living organism
  58. ACTH
    adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  59. ADH
    antidiuretic HOrmone
  60. DI
    diabetes insipidus
  61. DM
    diabetes Mellitus
  62. FBS
    fasting blood sugar
  63. FSH
    Follicle stimulating hormone
  64. GH
    growth Hormone
  65. HbA1C
    hemoglobin A1C
  66. PRH
    prolactin releasing hormone
  67. RAIU
    radioactive iodine uptake
  68. TSH
    thyroid stimulating hormone
  69. T4