The building blocks of language are the __________ words that refer to objects and other entities, and that convey the properties and relationships of those entities.
Content words are combined with ___________ words andi nflections, the so-called grammatical morphemes, to create templates for possible sentences.
These types of verbs have only one argument; they do not have a passive form, nor do they require direct objects. For example, sleep.
These types of verbs have two arguments; require a direct object and can be changed from passive to active. For example, throw.
These types of verbs have three arguments. For example, give.
__________ are a set of mental instructions for how to build a sentence.
By the time a child enters Brown’s Stage III at around 30 months, he or she has mastered the basic _____________.
S-V-O sentence and subject-copula-complement sentences
Sentence development occurs at two levels which are?
Sentence elements and sentence level
Noun and verb phrases are known as what?
The development of declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentence types and the negative forms of each can also be known as the ___________________.
During what stage of noun phrases might it be elaborated only when they occur alone?
During what stage of noun phrases does the initial elaboration only include the addition of the indefinite article a or the demonstrative that and later noun-phrase expansions include possessive nouns, quantifiers, and physical attributes to the noun?
During what stage of noun phrases do nouns appear alone and in the object position are modified?
During what stage of noun phrases does elaboration occur in both subject and object position?
By what stage should a child demonstrate that he or she knows that a noun/pronoun subject is obligatory and required for a sentence? Post noun modification also appears in this stage.
Relative clauses appear as post noun modifiers in what stage?
What are the three types of verbs?
Transitive, Intransitive, and Stative
Which verb type has to different voices? What are the types of voices?
The transitive verb type has two types of voices both active and passive
This verb type is followed by a complement; denotes states rather than actions
Transitive and intransitive verbs appear in stage ______, but a child doesn't observe the adult rules for each.
In stage two of verb-phrase development, a child begins making _____________ developments.
In stage three of verb-phrase development, __________ verbs first start to appear in their negative form.
helping or auxiliary
In stage four of verb-phrase development, __________ ____________ may appear in negatives, and interrogatives.
In stage five of verb-phrase development, ___________ and ___________ are mastered.
irregular and regular past tense
Children’s sense of time and reference seem to go through phases of development during the _______________.
A child acquires a flexible reference system between which ages?
3 1/2 to 4
Time and reference are marked by verb _________ and ______.
tense and aspect
relates the speech time, which is in the present, to the event time, or the time when the event occurs
concerns the dynamics of the event relative to its completion, repetition, or continuing duration
What are the different types of sentences?
Declarative, Imperative, Interrogative, and Negative
The majority of English speaking children possess these sentence types by age ______.
This stage of declarative sentences includes agent + action and action + object
This stage of declarative sentences includes subject + copula + complement
This stage of declarative sentences includes subject + auxiliary + verb + object
This stage of declarative sentences includes double auxiliary verbs.
This stage of declarative sentences includes indirect objects.
What are the three types of questions in interrogative sentences?
Those that assume a yes/no response; Those that begin with a Wh-word and assume a more complex answer; Thoes that are a statement to which agreement is sought by adding a tag, like "...isn't he?"
Children begin to ask questions at the one word level through the use of __________ (“Doggie?”), through a variation of What (“Wha?” “Tha?” or “Whassat?”) or through phonetically consistent forms.
This stage of interrogrative questions includes, what + NP + (doing) and where + NP + (going)
Late stage I to early stage II
This stage of interrogrative questions includes what or where + subject + predicate.
Late stage II to early stage III
This stage of interrogrative questions begins to use auxiliary forms in adult questions and inverted forms
Late stage III to early stage IV
This stage of interrogrative questions attained basic adult question form; who, when, and how interrogative appear
Late stage IV
During which stage do adult imperative sentences appear?
In the __________ form, the speaker demands, asks, insists, commands, and so on that the listener performs some act.
During this type of sentence, the verb is uninflected and the subject, you, is understood and therefore omitted.
There are five adult forms of the negative sentence form. Name them.
Not and –n’t attached to the verb
Negative words like nobody and nothing
The determiner “No” used before nouns
Negative adverbs such as never and nowhere
Negative prefixes, such as un-, dis-, and non-
The earliest symbolic negative to appear in the single-word form is ________ , which is frequently found within the first ______ words.
Negative forms develop as the negative element moves from the first position (No night-night) in __________ to a position between the subject and verb (Mommy no eat cookie) in ________________.
Stage I; Late II-Early III.
In ___________ and beyond, other negative forms are added (couldn’t, shouldn’t) and later indefinite forms (nobody), resulting in double negatives (nobody don’t).
Begin adding prepositional phrases to the ends of sentences at around age 3 (The coat on the chair is mine)
By stage IV, form such as gonna, wanna, and gotta are being used regularly with verbs to form infinitive phrases, usually in the object position (I’m gonna try)
Appear after stage V first in the object position at the end of the sentence (He avoided doing his homework)
What type of embedding? Occurs in IV and V, first filling the object function (I know what you did), then modifying the object (I like the one you have), and finally, modifying the subject (The boy who hit me is mean).
expresses a complete thought
doesn’t express complete thought
____________ is one of the primary characteristics of stage IV
What are the types of subordinate clause embedding?
Object noun-phrase complements
Indirect or embedded wh- questions
Relative clauses (subordinate clauses that follow and modify nouns)
The earliest relative pronouns are what?
that, what, and where
Most preschool errors involve use of the wrong __________ ____________.
When does the first clausal conjunction appear with the conjunction and when is it mastered?
First appears in Stage IV, but not mastered until Stage V
____ becomes an all-purpose conjunction, even thought the child acquires but, so, or, and if in ____________.
and; stage III
_______________ and ___________ occur in the same sentence late in preschool but only rarely
clausal conjoining and embedding
_______________ argues that children with SLI affect many language components but that the central deficit occurs in the part of morpho-syntax responsible for tense marking.
Extended Optional Infinitive (EOI)
True or False: Children with SLI treat tense marking as optional but in English it is obligatory.
Support for Extended Optional Infinitive (EOI) comes from what four sources?
Their inconsistent use of finite verb morphology in speech production
The rarity of errors suggesting use of incorrect grammatical rules (“The dogs barks at the girl”)
Morphological overgeneralization errors (“He eated the apple”)
The finding that their production of auxiliaries (is, are) is influenced by the presence or absence of an auxiliary in their preceding utterance
___________________ focuses on children’s difficulties in acquiring low-saliency morphemes such as tense-marking (e.g., past tense –ed, third person singular –s).
The Surface Account
True or False: Grammatical difficulties may NOT be observed in SLI may occur secondarily to underlying deficits in speech perception
True or False: Children with SLI have a general processing capacity limitation which profoundly affects their perception of grammatical morphemes that are brief in duration and their ability to infer their grammatical functions.
Children with SLI are characterized by abnormal development in the _____________________ .
procedural memory system
True or False: This system supports statistical learning of sequences of linguistic elements and children with SLI are expected to show deficits in the learning of probablistic patterns and sequential dependencies.
True or False: Basically, children with SLI are slow to accumulate information about frequency of occurrence of different types of linguistic elements and co-occurrence patterns.