Communicative Activities that involve the creation of oral written or multimodal texts through which we display what we know, integrate new knowledge with existing knowledge, create new structures of meaning, explore the unknown.
*Transactional Act: write or present in order to form, share knowledge for others (useful or relevant), solve problems, explore new topics. Describe experiences, physical objects, places, people, or events. Narration of story or recount an event. Demonstration of understanding of how something workds/ provide instructions (how to do something), persuasion of audience or reader.
*Expressive Act.: seek to express opinions & feelings, make ovservations, speculative reflections, make personal connections w/ others. Act for PLEASURE/ ENTERTAINMENT incl: performance of plays, poems, songs & creation of personal web pages, stories/ memorie books
Oral, written & multimedia presentations or projects created by students are evaluated by holistic or analytic rubrics.
Holistic rubric: use multiple critera to produce overall score for product, demonstration, performance.
Analytical rubric: more specific, isolate specific elements/ components of product, demonstration, performance & articulate critera for evaluating & scoring each feature. More time to create & provide more detailed information
Self assessment tool: evaluation of their own learning
Interpersonal Mode (136)
Includes act. accomplished through direct interation w/ others.
Interactional Act.: seeking to obtain information from another (directions, help on homework). Goals: obvious & clearly stated
Transactional Act.: establishment & maintenance of interpersonal relationships (phoning a friend, encounters w/ neighbors, classmate, colleagues) Multiple ways of communicating: phone, text, video chat, in person.
Past Experience: more extensive prior experience, more developed communicative plans we have
Social Identities: mom, child, classmate, colleague.. each require a different set of cognitive energy and behavior.
Accomodation: accomation to interactional style of our interlocutors: converge- adapt to other's comm. behavior, reduces social differences & become more simlilar to others,
Bilateral convergence: only 1 participant seeks to adapt to the comm. style of the other.
Diverge: accentuates dfferences & distance of part. & us.
Interpersonal Communicative Activities (142)
Needs Analysis: identifies the activities in which learners are expected to, or want to participate in as users of the target language. D1:Target language communities: learners are to be a a part of/ interact with/ in the future or important part of classroom comm. D2: goal orientation, classifies activities according to interactional/ transactional.
Situated Practice: Debate, role plays, games, conversation cards
Critical Framing: Diary of daily activities, interviews w/ native language speakers, self assessment
Transformed Practice: Improv, Teaching others, role play, simulations
Interpersonal Mode Assessment (155)
Use of criterion based, teacher-made, discrete-point grammar & vocab tests should be used, but improved upon to ensure the evaluation is closely tied to focus of instructional activities. Should also measure stu. learning of discourse, sociocultural, actional, strategic competence.
Chapter tests: criterion referenced tests in books should be expanded.
Performance based rubrics & student self assessment tools compliment evaluation of learning.
Interpretive Mode: (169)
Communicative Act. accomplished through: reading, listening, or the viewing of written, audio, & visual texts whose primary purpose is either aesthetic or efferent.
Aesthetic: Activites R, L, V for PLEASURE that focus on the range ofpossible meanings as well as feelings, ideas, attitutdes that emerge as we R, V, L (movies w/ friends).
Efferent:Interpretive activities is to seek new information or understanding. focus is on particular meanings we carry away from our involvement w/ texts ( C&C, C&E, persuasive essays)
1st language reading skills impact 2nd language skills
Prior knowledge leads to long term information storage
Listenability: the more simple language, the easier it is to comprehend & remember
Visual Literacy: ability to discriminate & interpret visual objects, images, symbols in addition to written words
Interpretive Mode Activities: (175)
Communicative Activities which students will develop competence
Situated Practice: Dictation, Games, listening to music/performances, notetaking, reading aloud, watching TV
OvertInstruction: Word Lists, Venn Diagram, Comprehension questions, arranging/ sequencing of text elements
Critical Framing: Interviews with native speakers, reader response journal, Predicting
Aim is for Student to be in an environment where Student is patterned to make own corrections basd on readily available comprensible input surrounding him.
Classroom Discourse (78)
Oral interaction that occurs btwn T&S and among S in the classroom
IRE- Initiation-Response-Evaluation- T asks q that they already know the answer to. Purpose is to elicit information from the students so that the teacher can ascertain whether they know the material
*Don't use exlusively
Instructional Conversation- assist understanding & ability to communicative concept, ideas, central to learning
*Zone of Proximal Development
Modeling: Teacher models behavior, S need to imitate, establishes abstract or rule governed behavior.
Feedback: a communicative behavior to let S know particular standards are being evaluated & how well their actions compare to the standards
*Corrective Feedback: to focus learners' attention on grammatical forms in 2nd Language
Contingency Managing: T makes clear the conn. among various turns, incorporates students voices into ongoing discussion, helps learners elaborate & build upon each other's contributions
Directing: focuses learn attention on what is to be learned in a task or activity by directly teaching a skill or concept. sometimes helpful to provide S w/ info & linguistic tools needed to complete a task successfully. Can be done through lectures, demonstrations, coaching
Questioning: 1) assist S in accomplishing a task or activity. 2) assess learners in terms of their understandings and abilities to perform without assistance. (translate sentences)
Explaining: can include defining or illustrating the meaning of a concept or term
Task structuring: arranging tasks so that the essential aspects are clearly distinguished from nonessential (worksheets, crossword puzzles)
Total Physical Response
Teacher = role of parent
Says word and demonstrates action
Stu. repeat word and action
Student direct class
Used with vocabulary connected with actions
*tenses P3, continuous, class language
*story telling instruction
What are the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning?