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- Communicative Activities that involve the creation of oral written or multimodal texts through which we display what we know, integrate new knowledge with existing knowledge, create new structures of meaning, explore the unknown.
- *Transactional Act: write or present in order to form, share knowledge for others (useful or relevant), solve problems, explore new topics. Describe experiences, physical objects, places, people, or events. Narration of story or recount an event. Demonstration of understanding of how something workds/ provide instructions (how to do something), persuasion of audience or reader.
- *Expressive Act.: seek to express opinions & feelings, make ovservations, speculative reflections, make personal connections w/ others. Act for PLEASURE/ ENTERTAINMENT incl: performance of plays, poems, songs & creation of personal web pages, stories/ memorie books
- *Writing process: prewriting stage, dracting, revising, proofreading
Presentational Mode: Activities (209)
- Situated Practice: *Acting, Copying, Drafting, Free writing (stories/poems), Oral Presentations, Voice recordings
- Overt Instruction:
- * Information gap activity, pattern analysis & practice, peer review, proofreading, revising, semantic webs, word games & puzzles
- Critical Framing:
- *Interviews with others, self-assessment of skills, survey of attitudes toward writing, writing different perspectives
- Transformed Practice:
- *Collages, creative performances, free writing, practice-improv, rewrite story endings, speeches, writing journals
Presentational Mode Assessment
- Oral, written & multimedia presentations or projects created by students are evaluated by holistic or analytic rubrics.
- Holistic rubric: use multiple critera to produce overall score for product, demonstration, performance.
- Analytical rubric: more specific, isolate specific elements/ components of product, demonstration, performance & articulate critera for evaluating & scoring each feature. More time to create & provide more detailed information
- Self assessment tool: evaluation of their own learning
Interpersonal Mode (136)
- Includes act. accomplished through direct interation w/ others.
- Interactional Act.: seeking to obtain information from another (directions, help on homework). Goals: obvious & clearly stated
- Transactional Act.: establishment & maintenance of interpersonal relationships (phoning a friend, encounters w/ neighbors, classmate, colleagues) Multiple ways of communicating: phone, text, video chat, in person.
- Past Experience: more extensive prior experience, more developed communicative plans we have
- Social Identities: mom, child, classmate, colleague.. each require a different set of cognitive energy and behavior.
- Accomodation: accomation to interactional style of our interlocutors: converge- adapt to other's comm. behavior, reduces social differences & become more simlilar to others,
- Bilateral convergence: only 1 participant seeks to adapt to the comm. style of the other.
- Diverge: accentuates dfferences & distance of part. & us.
Interpersonal Communicative Activities (142)
- Needs Analysis: identifies the activities in which learners are expected to, or want to participate in as users of the target language. D1:Target language communities: learners are to be a a part of/ interact with/ in the future or important part of classroom comm. D2: goal orientation, classifies activities according to interactional/ transactional.
- Situated Practice: Debate, role plays, games, conversation cards
- Overt Instruction: Matching (vocabulary/ speech acts), Langauge logs
- Critical Framing: Diary of daily activities, interviews w/ native language speakers, self assessment
- Transformed Practice: Improv, Teaching others, role play, simulations
Interpersonal Mode Assessment (155)
- Use of criterion based, teacher-made, discrete-point grammar & vocab tests should be used, but improved upon to ensure the evaluation is closely tied to focus of instructional activities. Should also measure stu. learning of discourse, sociocultural, actional, strategic competence.
- Chapter tests: criterion referenced tests in books should be expanded.
- Performance based rubrics & student self assessment tools compliment evaluation of learning.
Interpretive Mode: (169)
- Communicative Act. accomplished through: reading, listening, or the viewing of written, audio, & visual texts whose primary purpose is either aesthetic or efferent.
- Aesthetic: Activites R, L, V for PLEASURE that focus on the range ofpossible meanings as well as feelings, ideas, attitutdes that emerge as we R, V, L (movies w/ friends).
- Efferent: Interpretive activities is to seek new information or understanding. focus is on particular meanings we carry away from our involvement w/ texts ( C&C, C&E, persuasive essays)
- 1st language reading skills impact 2nd language skills
- Prior knowledge leads to long term information storage
- Listenability: the more simple language, the easier it is to comprehend & remember
- Visual Literacy: ability to discriminate & interpret visual objects, images, symbols in addition to written words
Interpretive Mode Activities: (175)
- Communicative Activities which students will develop competence
- Situated Practice: Dictation, Games, listening to music/performances, notetaking, reading aloud, watching TV
- Overt Instruction: Word Lists, Venn Diagram, Comprehension questions, arranging/ sequencing of text elements
- Critical Framing: Interviews with native speakers, reader response journal, Predicting
- Transformed Practice: Notetaking, outlining, reading aloud, buddy reading
Interpretive Mode Assessment (187)
- Performance based standards
- Student reading log
- Response log journal
5 Step Cycle for Teacher Research
- 1) Pose a problem
- 2) Identify sources & Gather information (interviews, questionnaires, field notes, personal journals, logs, literature & review)
- 3) Analyze
- 4) Reflect & Revise
- 5) Disseminate Information
Natural Approach to SLA
- Acquisition occurs when focus is not on the content of the message, not on form of utterance
- Input is comprehensible
- Learner is in low anxiety environment
- Input is student centered
Natural Approach Assessment
- Tests = oral goal is communication
- No direct error correction
- student= input and teacher reacts to the message,
- restate the question, restate response of student, write and say the correct form (audio & visual)
- Class continues without a disruption from work
- Uses task based methods w/ cultural learning
- *emphasises use of real language in real situations, in every day terms
- 4 R's: Reading, wRiting, conveRsations, cultuRe
- Tasks in every day life, teacher = facilitator
- Collaborative learning, peer interaction, improvised
- Native speaker as a full time conversational aide
- Use of cultural media
Communicative Approach Assessment
Aim is for Student to be in an environment where Student is patterned to make own corrections basd on readily available comprensible input surrounding him.
Classroom Discourse (78)
- Oral interaction that occurs btwn T&S and among S in the classroom
- IRE- Initiation-Response-Evaluation- T asks q that they already know the answer to. Purpose is to elicit information from the students so that the teacher can ascertain whether they know the material
- *Don't use exlusively
- Instructional Conversation- assist understanding & ability to communicative concept, ideas, central to learning
- *Zone of Proximal Development
- Modeling: Teacher models behavior, S need to imitate, establishes abstract or rule governed behavior.
- Feedback: a communicative behavior to let S know particular standards are being evaluated & how well their actions compare to the standards
- *Corrective Feedback: to focus learners' attention on grammatical forms in 2nd Language
- Contingency Managing: T makes clear the conn. among various turns, incorporates students voices into ongoing discussion, helps learners elaborate & build upon each other's contributions
- Directing: focuses learn attention on what is to be learned in a task or activity by directly teaching a skill or concept. sometimes helpful to provide S w/ info & linguistic tools needed to complete a task successfully. Can be done through lectures, demonstrations, coaching
- Questioning: 1) assist S in accomplishing a task or activity. 2) assess learners in terms of their understandings and abilities to perform without assistance. (translate sentences)
- Explaining: can include defining or illustrating the meaning of a concept or term
- Task structuring: arranging tasks so that the essential aspects are clearly distinguished from nonessential (worksheets, crossword puzzles)
Total Physical Response
- Teacher = role of parent
- Says word and demonstrates action
- Students follow
- Stu. repeat word and action
- Student direct class
- Used with vocabulary connected with actions
- *tenses P3, continuous, class language
- *story telling instruction
What are the National Standards for Foreign Language Learning?
- 5 C's
- Created by US in 1996
- Communication (it is the <3 of the 5 C's)
- (Think about the TEKS for teaching Spanish)