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What is the role of oxytocin/vasopressin in human behavior? What are the differences in human males and females after orgasm and what common behaviors after sex might these different levels cause (3pts)
Regulates various aspects of social behaviours including pair-bonding, aggression, maternal love, and sexual behavior. In women during sex the levels rise, peak and slowly dissolve and in men the levels drop significantly. In women, the peaking levels are responsible for women being more emotional after sex and prefer to bond, while men are less receptive to bonding and prefer to roll over and sleep
List the exact names of the phases/stages for women in Masters and Johnson's Four-Phase Model of sexual response, In the correct order (3pts)
Blood is leaving the genitals, muscles relax, breathing and heart rate return to normal. Which Phase of the sexual response cycle are we in?
What is the name of the extra Phase/stage of the sexual response cycle that only men have, according to Masters and Johnson's? What happens to males' sexual functioning during this phase? The fact that women typically do not have this phase means what for their sexual functioning, as opposed to men? (4pts)
Refractory. The phase that men are unable to have an erection immediately after orgasm. For women, it allows them to have multiple orgasm without cooldown period. In other words women have it better than men
What is a "sexual Prejudice" probably a better term than "Homophobia"? (2pts)
Sexual prejudice is more politically correct because homophobia has a negative connotation because of the word "homo" being used as a derogatory term.
What is one "cure" for homosexuality used in the past?
A ring with blade-like metals around the penis to cause harm during arousal, the theory was if you can condition the body to not get aroused by men then you would be cured.
What is the "Kinsey Continuum" of sexual orientation, why was it radically groundbreaking at the time it was first published (1948), and what is one of its major limitations? (6pts)
A scale that shows a range of sexual orientations. A difference from either being just gay or straight. in provides more possibilities within that sexual orientation range. Its limitations are the that their are more of scale then one that measures straight or gay, but other sexual orientations, asexual and pansexual.
What does the Klein Sexual Orientation Grid add to the Kinsey's System? (2pts)
It is more detailed and Informative. It has seven components of sexual orientations and each is assessed at different times. A total of 21 different combinations
What is the difference between sexual orientation and gender identity?
Gender Identity is an "individual's Self-conception as being male or female independent of actual biological sex. Sexual orientation is the pattern of emotional, romantic, and /or sexual attractions to men, women or both sexes.
Why is it difficult to determine what percentage of the population is gay?
it's difficult because it is not as simple as gay and straight, there is a range of sexuality and some people might not identify as gay if they land on a specific area on that range.
Describe the 1996 experiment at the University of Georgia done to examine "reaction formation" as a possible cause of homophobia (and also explain what a reaction formation is).
A study that appeared to reveal a major cause of homophobia in the university of Georgia in 1996. 64 white men who had not engaged in homosexual acts in their lifetime, their sexual fantasies only involved women. 35 homophobic 29 non-homophobic. it was measured by a questionnaire called the index of homophobia. three types of tape, heterosexual , gay and lesbian. The peter meter measure the circumference of their penis, both groups displayed similar arousal. they concluded that data was consistent with the belief that homophobic men had repressed homosexual desires. Reaction formation is a defensive process (defense mechanism) in which anxiety-producing or unacceptable emotions and impulses are mastered by exaggeration of the directly opposing tendency
Summarize by explaining clearly but briefly three specific pieces of research that indicate that the origins of sexual orientation are biological
1. Genetics--studies involving twin, fraternal and identical. And what they discovered was that the closer they were genetically the more likely they shared sexual preference. also gay males tended to have more gay relatives from the mother's side.
2. Hormones--with some believing that it can be either prenatal hormones influencing the chance of homosexual offspring, some even believe stress playing a factor; and adult hormone levels, although studies do not support it
3. Physiology-- research reported differences between brains of homosexuals and Heterosexuals men. Hypothalamus was either larger or smaller in gay men than in straight men.
Describe how homosexuality is viewed and/or acted out in a culture other than ours (not the 20th -21st Century USA/Western Europe
9th century, almost all of europe had codes or laws based on the church teachings and while all other forms of sexual transgression were were were punished, homosexuality was often times ignored. In fact the church pay little attention.
Briefly summarize the standard "model of coming out":
- The model consists of 6 stages:
- Step1: Identity confusion; worrying about behavior being gay or lesbian
- Step2: Identity comparison: accepts potential gay and lesbian identity; rejects the heterosexual model
- Step3: Identity tolerance: the person actively seeks out the homosexual community
- Step4: Identity acceptance: a positive view of self-identity is forged and a network of gay and lesbian friends is formed
- Step5: Identity Pride: Homosexual pride is developed and anger over treatment may lead to rejecting homosexuality
- Step6: Identity Synthesis: The person sees no no longer is sexual orientation seen as the sole identity by which an individual can be characterized.