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Science of Classification
What is the Risky Shift Phenomenon?
A group decision will be less conservative than the average group members decision, prior to group discussion.
* Risky behavior w/groups
Define Group Cohesiveness
Forces that bind group members together. As cohesiveness goes up, negative factors go down.
* Based on Kurt Lewin's Field theory
Define Group Process
Analyzing the common actions, interactions, and transactions
Define Group Content
The material discussed in a group setting
Group Therapy flourished in teh US due to
A shortage of individual therapist during WWII
Define Group "Norms"
Explicit and Implicit rules that govern acceptable behavior and group rules. "expected behavior"
What theorist work is considered a preface to group work?
Adler " social nature of people"
Who coined the term group therapy in 1931
Jacob Moreno, father of psychodrama
- Membership that can be defined
- Some degree of unity and interaction
- shared pupose
List Irvin Yalom's 11 components of group counseling
- Intstellation of Hope
- Group cohesiveness
- Imitative Behavior
- Family reenactment
- Imparting Info
What qualities has reasearch shown to be helpful for a group leader
- Common Sense
Yalom listed many group factors that are curative such as
- Existential learning
- Installation of hope
- Imitative Behavior
- Reenactment of Family Expenses
Define vertical interventions in group counseling
Strategies that foucs on individuals within the group. Also called intrapersonal leadership
Define Horizontal interventions in group counseling. (Also called interpersonal method)
Strategies that approach the group as a whold such as focusing on group relationships, processes, tasks and interactions
Study of measuring person to person relationships regarding what members in a group think or feel
A group therapist is constructing a diagram to better understand dynamics between subgroups and members. What is this called?
Charting a pictorial. (credited to Moreno and Jenny's)
What stage does a hierarchy among members occur?
Storming/Power and Control stage
What stage do fights between subgroups and members rebelling against the leader occurr
2nd Stage: Control/Transition Stage
Describe the dynamic of group development/group stages
- Transition/power and control/storming
- Working stage/Norming/Cohesion
- Yalom's stages: Orientation-Conflict-Cohesion-Termination
Define the group term "conflict of interest"
Occurs when a group member maximizes his/her needs and interest at the expense of someone else
Define Role Conflict in group
Discrepancy between the way a member is expected to behave and the way he/she actually behaves
Group specialist classify member roles into 3 categories. Describe them.
Task Roles= Helps group carry out task
Maintenance Roles=helps manintain or strengthen group processes
Self serving/Individual roles= person meets their own needs. Negative. Someone who refuses to participate.
Describe Hartford's concept of isolate role in groups
Isolate is ignored by others. Isiolates generally feel afraid to reach out
Define REACTIVE in counseling field
A given condition is the result of environmental stress (e.g. reactive schizophrenia)
What types of groups have a low degree of structure
What types of groups are highly structured?
Assertiveness Training Groups
What is a T-group and what is the focus
* Focuses on human relations process between personnel and business setting
Define Group Polarity or Group Polarization
A person's view may become more extreme after they participate in a group
What were the results of the Encounter Group Project by Lieberman, Yalom and Miles?
Leaders who utilized many structured exercises wee more popular than leaders who did not, but the outcome for group participants was lower
Describe George Gazda's typology of 3 types of groups
- Guidance (pschoeducational group)
- * primary preventative
- * Do NOT deal w/remediation
- * problem is more severe
- *longer duration
What is the difference between group therapy and group counseling?
Group therapy=longer duration and more severe problems
Describe a TERTIARY group as defined by Gerald Caplan
Deals more with individual difficulties that are more serious and long standing. "Severe Pathology" Utilized for long term psychotherapy.
Describe a SECONDARY group as defined by Gerald Caplan
A difficulty or disturbance is present, but not usually sever. Group works to reduce severity or lenghth of problem. (e.g. Grief Group)
Describe a Primary Group as defined by Gerald Caplan
Preventative: Stresses a healthy lifestyle or coping strategies which can reduce occurrence of difficulty. Attempts to ward off problems. (e.g. group on birth control to prevent teen pregnacy)
Name the 2 organizations created in the 1940's for group therapy
American Society for group psychotherapy and psychodrama
American Group Psychotherapy Association
What are the goals of Adlerian groups?
- Understand lifestyles
- Recognize strengths
- Accept responsibility
- Increase self-esteem
- Develop Social Interest
What are the goals of Rational Emotive Behavior in Groups?
- Constructive Changes in clients thinking and behavior leading to a greater acceptance of self
- Move past self defeating behaviors
- Learn A-B-C theory for irrational beliefs
What are the goals of Behavioral groups?
- Eliminate problem behavior
- Teaching coping skills and self management skills
- Contracts, modeling, and reinforcement
What are the goals of Transactional Analysis groups?
- Making new decisions
- Become free of scripts and games
- Altering course of life
- Making contracts
What is the goal of Gestalt Group
- Experience in here and now
- Personality Change
- Deal w/unfinished business
What is the goal of person-centered group
- Encourage openness
- Explore full range of feelings
- Increase self understanding
- move toward self actualization
What is the goal of psycoanalytic group
- Re-experience early family relationships
- Uncover buried feelings
- Restructure character
Describe Jacob Moreno's Psychodrama
- Enacting Conflics or crisis situations
- * Focus on here and now
- Director/producer (leader)
- Protagonist (group member)
- Auxilary Ego/Actors (people or objects)
- Audience: 1st term group psychotherapy
List Yalom's leadership Functions in Group
- Emotional stimulation
- Meaning attribution
- Executive Leadership Function (rules, providing direction)
Describe Corey's 6 stages of group
- Post Group= Evaluation
List Yalom's 4 stages of group
List B.Tuckman's 5 stages of group
What is the maximum length of time a group session should be?
- 2 hours= Adult outpatient
- 90 min= inpatient
- 20-30 min=5-6 years old
Define Scape goating
Several members of group gang up on individual and "dump" on him/her
Keeping material on a cognitive level
What is the difference between INTERPERSONAL and INTRAPERSONAL group leaders?
Interpersonal leaders favor here and now interventions
Intrapersonal leaders are more likely to focus on past and may use psychodynamic approaches
Group specialist classify members role into what categories
- Task roles: helps group carry out a task (information giver)
- Maintenance role: helps maintain strengthen group processes (e.g. follower or encourager
- Self-Serving role: negative. Person meets there own needs at expense of group.
Describe the harmonize role in groups
Person who tries to make certain that everything is going smoothly
What are the goals of reality groups?
- Improve quality of life by achieving increasing control over ones life
- Taking responsibility
- Honest self-examination to evaluate behavior
- Formulate plan/contract for change
Describe the "Peeping Tom" role in group
Ask a never ending string of questions
Classification of Disease
What is a marathon group?
Generally last a minimum of 24 hrs and may be conducted over a weekend or a period fo several days
* Frederick Stoller and George Bach
Who would not be a good candidate for group counseling?
- self centered
Yalom feels main factor in selecting participants for a group is__________
That members can feel cohesive (we-ness), which means most importan trait for group members is trust.
What is closed Group?
Allow no members after the group begins
- Advantage: promotes cohesiveness
- Disadvantage: not as cost effective
* Also called mutuality
We are not the only ones in the world with a given problem
Describe 3 basic leadership styles from 1939 that Lein , Lippit and White study
- Autocratic (authorarian) best when immediate decision is necessary
- can result in aggressive behavior in children
- Democratic; best for children
- Laissez Faire; members cna do as they please w/o direction, interference
- best when decision has been made
What is the ideal number of members in an adult couseling group? Children Group?
- Adults= about 5/6 to 8
- Children= 3-4 children
Define BLOCKING in group therapy
Occurs when a leader uses intervention to stop/block, a negative or counter productive behavior that could hurt another person in group.
Define GROUP DYNAMICS
- The study of group operations including:
- group stages
- leadership style
- decision making
Describe the ENERGIZER role in group
Stimulus enthusiasm in the group (This is a maintenance role)
Describe the GATEKEEPER role in groups
Makes certain that everyone is doing his or her task or participating.
Danger of not doing work on their own issues.
Describe the STORYTELLER role in groups
Monopolizes a wealth of group time telling endless, often irrelevent, tales.
Define BLOCKING in groups
Used by leader to stop a hurtful behavior (e.g. gossiping or breaking confidentiality)
Define LINKING in groups
When a leader attempts to relate one person's predicament to another persons predicament
Test limitations of group work
- Group leader can control and members and experience emotional harm
- member may not be capable of trust
- member may 1st need individual therapy
- group could become substitute for real world
- counselor may not be as effective
- member may feel pressure to conform to group norms
- cant guarantee confidentiality
List advantages of group counseling
- 1. members can learn to give help
- 2. cost less than individual counseling
- 3.groups allow for "invivol" work..Virarious learning
- 4. Promotes Universiality
- 5. Support System
- 6. Members get multiple feedback
- 7. Members can model successful communication and coping skills.
Describe Gerald Caplan's 3 group classifications
PRIMARY: Preventative and attempts to ward of problems. Stresses healthy lifestyle or coping strategies
SECONDARY: Problem or disturbance is present, but not severe. Works to reduce severity/lenghth of problem (i.e. grief, shyness)
TERTIARY: Severe pathology, more long standing, long term
How did group therapy intitially flourish in the U.S.?
Shortage of individual therapist during WWII (Prior to 1960's,most therapy took place in dyads)
Describe Kurt Leiwin's idea of "postive valence"
Part of his "field theory"
- *Cohesiveness is a binding force among group members
- If cohesiveness, then absenteeism and other negative factors
* High cohesiveness leades productivity and commitment
What is the difference between group therapy and group counseling.
Group Therapy (aka personality reconstruction group) is of longer duration.
Group Counseling is also called interpersonal problem solving group
What were the findings of the "encounter" group by Lieberman, Yalum, and Mills?
Group leaders who utilized many structured exercises were more popular thatn leaders who did not. However, outcomes of group participation was lower.
(i.e. structured exercises are less effective than unstructured techiques.
Describe George Gazda's types of groups
1. Guidance (psychoeducatonal)= prevetative, provide instructuion. Do not deal with remediation of severe pathology. (e.g. Improving study skills)
2. Counseling=Focus on Conscious concerns.
3. Psychotherapy=Tertiary. More serious issues. Longer duration. May emphasize role of unconscious mind and childhood experiences.
What is the RISKY SHIFT PHENOMENON?
Group decision will be less conservative (more liberal) than the average group members decision prior to group discussion
What is a T-Group?
Training group. (AKA sensitivity group)
* Focus i on human relation processes, between, personnel in a business setting.
What is the ASGW?
Association for specialist in group work (Part of ACA)
Define mutuality in a group
" We are not the only ones in the world with a given problem".
Describe the 3 basic leadership styles resulting from Lewin, Lippett, and whites 1939 research.
1. Autocratic (Authoritarian)=hostility 30x greater. Superior style when immediate decision is necessary.
2. Democratic=Children display best behavior. Most desirable.
3. Laissez Faire=best when group has made decision and committed to it.
Experts say an effective group has how many members
Adult = 5/6 to 8
Adolescent = 5-6
Long-term group (6 mths) = as many as 10
What does the term "reactive" mean in counseling? (e.g. reactive schizophrenia)
A given condition is the result of environmental stress
Describe the ENERGIZER role within a group
stimulates enthusiasm in the group
Describe the SCAPE GOAT role in groups
The person everyone blames
Describe the GATEKEEPER role in groups.
Tries to make sure everyone is doing his/her task and is participating.
* Danger is gate keeper often doesn't work on his/her own issues.
- study of measuring
- realationships regarding what members in a group think or fell.
Describe General Stages of Group
- Forming (orientation)
- Storming (transition) power&control
- Norming (working stage)
- Adjourning (termination)
What type of clients are NOT appropriate for groups?
- self centered
- act out aggressively
What type of groups lean toward a low degree of structure?
- Non-Directive Groups
- Psychodynamic Groups
- Existential Groups