vet-tech-chem-ch-7-solutions

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darlene.m.nelson
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185321
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vet-tech-chem-ch-7-solutions
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2012-11-25 19:27:17
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vet tech chemistry solutions set
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vet tech chemistry solutions set
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  1. Colloid
    • a mixture having particles that are moderately large
    • colloids pass through filters but cannot pass through semi-permeable membranes
  2. Concentration
    a measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a specified amount of solution
  3. Crenation
    the shriveling of cell because water leaves the cell when the cell is placed in a hypertonic solution
  4. Dialysis
    a process in wich water and small solute particles pass through a semipermeable membrane
  5. Dilution
    a process by which water (solvent) is added to a solution to increase the volume and decrease (dilute) the concentration of the solute
  6. Electrolyte
    • a substance that produces ions when dissolved in water
    • its solution conducts electricity
  7. Equivalent (Eq)
    the amount of a positive or negative ion that supplies 1 mole of electrical charge
  8. Hemodialysis
    a mechanical cleansing of the blood by an artificial kidney using the process of dialysis
  9. Hemolysis
    a swelling and bursting of red blood cells in a hypotonic solution because of an increase in fluid volume (in the cells)
  10. Henry's law
    the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure of that gas above the liquid
  11. Hydration
    the process of surrounding dissolved ions by water molecules
  12. Hypertonic solution
    • a solution that has higher particle concentration and higher osmotic pressure than the cells of the body
    • results in crenation
  13. Hypotonic solution
    • a solution that has a lower particle concentration and lower osmotic pressure than the cells of the body
    • results in lysis/hemolysis
  14. Insoluble salt
    an ionic compound that does not dissolve in water
  15. Isotonic solution
    a solution that has the same particle concentration and osmotic pressure as those of the body
  16. Mass percent (m/m)
    • the grams (g) of solute in exactly 100 g of solution
    • for unsaturated solutions
  17. Mass/volume percent (m/v)
    • the grams (g) of solute in exactly 100 ml of solution
    • for unsaturated solutions
  18. Molarity (M)
    the number of moles of solute in exactly 1 L of solution
  19. Nonelectrolyte
    • a substance that dissolves in water as molecules
    • its solution does not conduct an electrical charge
    • soluble polar molecules:
    • - process called dissolving molecular solutions
    • - polar covalent molecules
    • - no ions produced
  20. Osmosis
    the flow of a solvent, usually water, through a semipermeable membrane into a solution of a higher solute concentration
  21. Osmotic pressure
    the pressure that prevents the flow of water into the more concentrated solution
  22. Saturated solution
    • a solution containing the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve at a particular temperature
    • any additional solute will remain undissolved in the container
    • this is a dynamic equilibrium process (some molecules will recrystallize while other dissolve)
  23. Soluble salt
    a ionic compound that dissolves in water
  24. Solubility
    • the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in exactly 100 g of solvent, usually water, at a given temperature
    • solids generally increase solubility as the temperature increases
    • Gases decrease solubility as the temperature increases
  25. Solute
    • the component in a solution that is present in the smaller quantity
    • the substance that is being dissolved
  26. Solution
    • a homogeneous mixture in which the solute is made up of small particles (ions or molecules) that can pass through filters and semipermeable membranes
    • a homogeneous mixture of solute and solvent
    • rule - like dissolves like, e.g. polar dissolves polar
  27. Solvent
    • the substance in which a solute dissolves
    • usually the component present in the greatest amount
    • the substance that is doing the dissolving
  28. Strong electrolyte
    • a polar or ionic compound that ionizes completely when it dissolves in water
    • its solution is a good conductor of electricity
    • salts in water:
    • - process called dissociation
    • - many ions produced
  29. Suspension
    a mixture in which the solute particles are large enough and heavy enough to settle out and be retained by both filters and semipermeable membranes
  30. Unsaturated solution
    a solution that contains less solute than can be dissolved
  31. Volume percent (v/v)
    • a percent concentration that relates the volume of the solute in exactly 100 ml of solution
    • for unsaturated solutions
  32. Weak electrolyte
    • a substance that produces only a few ions along with many molecules when it dissolves in water
    • its solution is a weak conductor of electricity
    • weak acids in water:
    • - process called ionization
    • - few ions produced

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