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The Avignon Papacy
- In appearance was under strong French influence.
- Clement VI started the practice of selling indulgences, or pardons, for unrepented sins.
- Was significant because the church would make money so people could get rid of their sins.
- To make the purchase of indulgences more compelling, church doctrine on purgatory also developed enterprisingly during this period.
Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th, 15th and 16th century Catholic Church which held that supreme authority in the Church resided with an Ecumenical council, apart from, or even against, the pope. The movement emerged in response to the Great Western Schism between rival popes in Rome and Avignon. The schism inspired the summoning of the Council of Pisa (1409), which failed to end the schism, and the Council of Constance (1414–1418), which succeeded and proclaimed its own superiority over the Pope. Conciliarism reached its apex with the Council of Basel (1431–1449), which ultimately fell apart.
Defender of Peace
- In 1324 Marisilius of Padua stressed the independent origins and autonomy of secular government.
- This depicted the pope as a subordinate member of a society over wihich the emperor ruled supreme and in which temporal peace was the highest good.
- Depicted being punished in the present life, not the next one.
- Issued by Pope Boniface VIII.
- This papal power declared that temporal aurthority was "subject" to the spiritual power of the church.
- This gave more power to the church.
The Hundred Years' War
- A war between England and France.
- Mostly the controversy over the succesion of the French throne.
- Started after Edward III made an assertion to the French throne.
- Joan of Arc inpired an emergent national pride in France.
The Black Death
- Between 1348 and the early 15th century.
- Almost 40% of the population of Western Europe was killed.
- Started in fleas, traveled to rats, then infected humans.
- Caused muscle spasms, body swelling, bulboes, and eventually death.
Joan of Arc
- Lived from 1412-1431.
- She was a military genius and gave the French an enraged sense of national identity and destiny.
- King Charles VII let her be the army's leader and she won at the beseige in Orleans.
- Executed as a heretic.
Pope Boniface VIII
- He came to power when England and France were maturing as nation-states.
- He was a nobleman and a skilled politician.
- He issued the papal bull Unam Sanctum.
- He retreated to Bourges after the death of his father.
- He was significant because many people rallied to his cause.
- He gave Joan leave and they repulsed the English from Orleans.
- He was king of France at the end of the Hundred Years' War.
- Moderate and extreme Hussites turned to the writings of him in Bohemia.
- One of local intellectuals that helped lead Czech nationalism and a religious reform movement.
- He was also the rector of the University of Prague after 1403.
- Died at stake for heresy.
- The Lollards in England looked to the writings of him to justify their demands.
- He was an Oxford theologian and a philosopher of high standing. He was a major intellectual spokesman.
- His views gave justification to the government and confiscation of church properties within England.
- He caused problems between England & France.
- He was the king of England and was also an heir to the French throne.
- He was significant becuase he may have started the Hundred Years' War.
- Also known as Philip the Fair, King of France.
- He saw France become efficient, centralized monarchy.
- He was a ruthless politician and was determined to end England's continental holdings.
- He was eager to fight with Pope Boniface VIII.
Treaty of Troyes
- This disenherited the legitimate heir to the French throne.
- It proclaimed Henry V the successor to the French king, Charles VI.
The Great Schism
- Charles V wanted to keep the papacy within French influence.
- 3 heads of the church at one time.